Angular is a framework for building client applications in HTML and either JavaScript or a language like TypeScript that compiles to JavaScript.

Angular 是一个用 HTML 和 JavaScript 或者一个可以编译成 JavaScript 的语言(例如 Dart 或者 TypeScript ),来构建客户端应用的框架。

The framework consists of several libraries, some of them core and some optional.


You write Angular applications by composing HTML templates with Angularized markup, writing component classes to manage those templates, adding application logic in services, and boxing components and services in modules.

我们是这样写 Angular 应用的:用 Angular 扩展语法编写 HTML 模板, 用组件类管理这些模板,用服务添加应用逻辑, 用模块打包发布组件与服务。

Then you launch the app by bootstrapping the root module. Angular takes over, presenting your application content in a browser and responding to user interactions according to the instructions you've provided.

然后,我们通过引导根模块来启动该应用。 Angular 在浏览器中接管、展现应用的内容,并根据我们提供的操作指令响应用户的交互。

Of course, there is more to it than this. You'll learn the details in the pages that follow. For now, focus on the big picture.



The architecture diagram identifies the eight main building blocks of an Angular application:

这个架构图展现了 Angular 应用中的 8 个主要构造块:

Learn these building blocks, and you're on your way.


The code referenced on this page is available as a .





Angular apps are modular and Angular has its own modularity system called Angular modules or NgModules.

Angular 应用是模块化的,并且 Angular 有自己的模块系统,它被称为 Angular 模块NgModules

Angular modules are a big deal. This page introduces modules; the Angular modules page covers them in depth.

Angular 模块很重要。 这里只是简单介绍,在 Angular 模块中会做深入讲解。

Every Angular app has at least one Angular module class, the root module, conventionally named AppModule.

每个 Angular 应用至少有一个模块(根模块),习惯上命名为AppModule

While the root module may be the only module in a small application, most apps have many more feature modules, each a cohesive block of code dedicated to an application domain, a workflow, or a closely related set of capabilities.


An Angular module, whether a root or feature, is a class with an @NgModule decorator.

Angular 模块(无论是根模块还是特性模块)都是一个带有@NgModule装饰器的类。

Decorators are functions that modify JavaScript classes. Angular has many decorators that attach metadata to classes so that it knows what those classes mean and how they should work. Learn more about decorators on the web.

装饰器是用来修饰 JavaScript 类的函数。 Angular 有很多装饰器,它们负责把元数据附加到类上,以了解那些类的设计意图以及它们应如何工作。 关于装饰器的更多信息

NgModule is a decorator function that takes a single metadata object whose properties describe the module. The most important properties are:


Here's a simple root module:



import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule ], providers: [ Logger ], declarations: [ AppComponent ], exports: [ AppComponent ], bootstrap: [ AppComponent ] }) export class AppModule { }

The export of AppComponent is just to show how to export; it isn't actually necessary in this example. A root module has no reason to export anything because other components don't need to import the root module.

AppComponentexport语句只是用于演示如何导出的,它在这个例子中并不是必须的。 根模块不需要导出任何东西,因为其它组件不需要导入根模块。

Launch an application by bootstrapping its root module. During development you're likely to bootstrap the AppModule in a main.ts file like this one.

我们通过引导根模块来启动应用。 在开发期间,你通常在一个main.ts文件中引导AppModule,就像这样:


import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic'; import { AppModule } from './app.module'; platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule);

Angular modules vs. JavaScript modules

Angular 模块 vs. JavaScript 模块

The Angular module — a class decorated with @NgModule — is a fundamental feature of Angular.

Angular 模块(一个用@NgModule装饰的类)是 Angular 的基础特性。

JavaScript also has its own module system for managing collections of JavaScript objects. It's completely different and unrelated to the Angular module system.

JavaScript 也有自己的模块系统,用来管理一组 JavaScript 对象。 它与 Angular 的模块系统完全不同且完全无关。

In JavaScript each file is a module and all objects defined in the file belong to that module. The module declares some objects to be public by marking them with the export key word. Other JavaScript modules use import statements to access public objects from other modules.

JavaScript 中,每个文件是一个模块,文件中定义的所有对象都从属于那个模块。 通过export关键字,模块可以把它的某些对象声明为公共的。 其它 JavaScript 模块可以使用import 语句来访问这些公共对象。

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
export class AppModule { }

Learn more about the JavaScript module system on the web.

学习更多关于 JavaScript 模块的知识。

These are two different and complementary module systems. Use them both to write your apps.


Angular libraries

Angular 模块库


Angular ships as a collection of JavaScript modules. You can think of them as library modules.

Angular 提供了一组 JavaScript 模块。可以把它们看做库模块。

Each Angular library name begins with the @angular prefix.

每个 Angular 库的名字都带有@angular前缀。

You install them with the npm package manager and import parts of them with JavaScript import statements.

npm 包管理工具安装它们,用 JavaScript 的import语句导入其中某些部件。

For example, import Angular's Component decorator from the @angular/core library like this:


import { Component } from '@angular/core';

You also import Angular modules from Angular libraries using JavaScript import statements:

还可以使用 JavaScript 的导入语句从 Angular 中导入 Angular 模块

import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';

In the example of the simple root module above, the application module needs material from within that BrowserModule. To access that material, add it to the @NgModule metadata imports like this.

在上面那个简单的根模块的例子中,应用模块需要BrowserModule的某些素材。 要访问这些素材,就得把它加入@NgModule元数据的imports中,就像这样:

imports: [ BrowserModule ],

In this way you're using both the Angular and JavaScript module systems together.

这种情况下,你同时使用了 Angular 和 JavaScript 的模块化系统。

It's easy to confuse the two systems because they share the common vocabulary of "imports" and "exports". Hang in there. The confusion yields to clarity with time and experience.

这两个系统比较容易混淆,因为它们共享相同的词汇 “imports” 和 “exports”。 先放一放,随着时间和经验的增长,自然就会澄清了。

Learn more from the Angular modules page.

更多信息,见 Angular 模块




A component controls a patch of screen called a view.


For example, the following views are controlled by components:


You define a component's application logic—what it does to support the view—inside a class. The class interacts with the view through an API of properties and methods.

我们在类中定义组件的应用逻辑,为视图提供支持。 组件通过一些由属性和方法组成的 API 与视图交互。

For example, this HeroListComponent has a heroes property that returns an array of heroes that it acquires from a service. HeroListComponent also has a selectHero() method that sets a selectedHero property when the user clicks to choose a hero from that list.

例如,HeroListComponent有一个heroes属性,它返回一个英雄数组,这个数组从一个服务获得。 HeroListComponent还有一个selectHero()方法,当用户从列表中点选一个英雄时,就把它/她设置到selectedHero属性。

app/hero-list.component.ts (class)

export class HeroListComponent implements OnInit { heroes: Hero[]; selectedHero: Hero; constructor(private service: HeroService) { } ngOnInit() { this.heroes = this.service.getHeroes(); } selectHero(hero: Hero) { this.selectedHero = hero; } }

Angular creates, updates, and destroys components as the user moves through the application. Your app can take action at each moment in this lifecycle through optional lifecycle hooks, like ngOnInit() declared above.

当用户在这个应用中漫游时, Angular 会创建、更新和销毁组件。 应用可以通过生命周期钩子在组件生命周期的各个时间点上插入自己的操作,例如上面声明的ngOnInit()




You define a component's view with its companion template. A template is a form of HTML that tells Angular how to render the component.

我们通过组件的自带的模板来定义组件视图。模板以 HTML 形式存在,告诉 Angular 如何渲染组件。

A template looks like regular HTML, except for a few differences. Here is a template for our HeroListComponent:

多数情况下,模板看起来很像标准 HTML,当然也有一点不同的地方。下面是HeroListComponent组件的一个模板:


<h2>Hero List</h2> <p><i>Pick a hero from the list</i></p> <ul> <li *ngFor="let hero of heroes" (click)="selectHero(hero)"> {{hero.name}} </li> </ul> <hero-detail *ngIf="selectedHero" [hero]="selectedHero"></hero-detail>

Although this template uses typical HTML elements like <h2> and <p>, it also has some differences. Code like *ngFor, {{hero.name}}, (click), [hero], and <hero-detail> uses Angular's template syntax.

模板除了可以使用像<h2><p>这样的典型的 HTML 元素,还能使用其它元素。 例如,像*ngFor{{hero.name}}(click)[hero]<hero-detail>这样的代码使用了 Angular 的模板语法

In the last line of the template, the <hero-detail> tag is a custom element that represents a new component, HeroDetailComponent.


The HeroDetailComponent is a different component than the HeroListComponent you've been reviewing. The HeroDetailComponent (code not shown) presents facts about a particular hero, the hero that the user selects from the list presented by the HeroListComponent. The HeroDetailComponent is a child of the HeroListComponent.

HeroDetailComponent跟以前见到过的HeroListComponent不同的组件。 HeroDetailComponent(代码未显示)用于展现一个特定英雄的情况,这个英雄是用户从HeroListComponent列表中选择的。 HeroDetailComponentHeroListComponent子组件


Notice how <hero-detail> rests comfortably among native HTML elements. Custom components mix seamlessly with native HTML in the same layouts.

注意到了吗?<hero-detail>舒适地躺在原生 HTML 元素之间。 自定义组件和原生 HTML 在同一布局中融合得天衣无缝。




Metadata tells Angular how to process a class.

元数据告诉 Angular 如何处理一个类。

Looking back at the code for HeroListComponent, you can see that it's just a class. There is no evidence of a framework, no "Angular" in it at all.

回头看看HeroListComponent就会明白:它只是一个类。 一点框架的痕迹也没有,里面完全没有出现 "Angular" 的字样。

In fact, HeroListComponent really is just a class. It's not a component until you tell Angular about it.

实际上,HeroListComponent真的只是一个类。直到我们告诉 Angular 它是一个组件。

To tell Angular that HeroListComponent is a component, attach metadata to the class.

要告诉 Angular HeroListComponent是个组件,只要把元数据附加到这个类。

In TypeScript, you attach metadata by using a decorator. Here's some metadata for HeroListComponent:

在TypeScript 中,我们用装饰器 (decorator) 来附加元数据。 下面就是HeroListComponent的一些元数据。

app/hero-list.component.ts (metadata)

@Component({ moduleId: module.id, selector: 'hero-list', templateUrl: 'hero-list.component.html', providers: [ HeroService ] }) export class HeroListComponent implements OnInit { /* . . . */ }

Here is the @Component decorator, which identifies the class immediately below it as a component class.


The @Component decorator takes a required configuration object with the information Angular needs to create and present the component and its view.

@Component装饰器能接受一个配置对象, Angular 会基于这些信息创建和展示组件及其视图。

Here are a few of the possible @Component configuration options:



The metadata in the @Component tells Angular where to get the major building blocks you specify for the component.

@Component里面的元数据会告诉 Angular 从哪里获取你为组件指定的主要的构建块。

The template, metadata, and component together describe a view.


Apply other metadata decorators in a similar fashion to guide Angular behavior. @Injectable, @Input, and @Output are a few of the more popular decorators.

其它元数据装饰器用类似的方式来指导 Angular 的行为。 例如@Injectable@Input@Output等是一些最常用的装饰器。

The architectural takeaway is that you must add metadata to your code so that Angular knows what to do.

这种架构处理方式是:你向代码中添加元数据,以便 Angular 知道该怎么做。

Data binding


Without a framework, you would be responsible for pushing data values into the HTML controls and turning user responses into actions and value updates. Writing such push/pull logic by hand is tedious, error-prone, and a nightmare to read as any experienced jQuery programmer can attest.

如果没有框架,我们就得自己把数据值推送到 HTML 控件中,并把用户的反馈转换成动作和值更新。 如果手工写代码来实现这些推/拉逻辑,肯定会枯燥乏味、容易出错,读起来简直是噩梦 —— 写过 jQuery 的程序员大概都对此深有体会。


Angular supports data binding, a mechanism for coordinating parts of a template with parts of a component. Add binding markup to the template HTML to tell Angular how to connect both sides.

Angular 支持数据绑定,一种让模板的各部分与组件的各部分相互合作的机制。 我们往模板 HTML 中添加绑定标记,来告诉 Angular 如何把二者联系起来。

As the diagram shows, there are four forms of data binding syntax. Each form has a direction — to the DOM, from the DOM, or in both directions.

如图所示,数据绑定的语法有四种形式。每种形式都有一个方向 —— 绑定到 DOM 、绑定自 DOM 以及双向绑定。

The HeroListComponent example template has three forms:


app/hero-list.component.html (binding)

<li>{{hero.name}}</li> <hero-detail [hero]="selectedHero"></hero-detail> <li (click)="selectHero(hero)"></li>

Two-way data binding is an important fourth form that combines property and event binding in a single notation, using the ngModel directive. Here's an example from the HeroDetailComponent template:

双向数据绑定是重要的第四种绑定形式,它使用ngModel指令组合了属性绑定和事件绑定的功能。 下面是HeroDetailComponent模板的范例:

app/hero-detail.component.html (ngModel)

<input [(ngModel)]="hero.name">

In two-way binding, a data property value flows to the input box from the component as with property binding. The user's changes also flow back to the component, resetting the property to the latest value, as with event binding.


Angular processes all data bindings once per JavaScript event cycle, from the root of the application component tree through all child components.

Angular 在每个 JavaScript 事件循环中处理所有的数据绑定,它会从组件树的根部开始,递归处理全部子组件。


Data binding plays an important role in communication between a template and its component.



Data binding is also important for communication between parent and child components.



指令 (directive)


Angular templates are dynamic. When Angular renders them, it transforms the DOM according to the instructions given by directives.

Angular 模板是动态的。当 Angular 渲染它们时,它会根据指令提供的操作对 DOM 进行转换。

A directive is a class with directive metadata. In TypeScript, apply the @Directive decorator to attach metadata to the class.

指令是一个带有“指令元数据”的类。在 TypeScript 中,要通过@Directive装饰器把元数据附加到类上。

A component is a directive-with-a-template; a @Component decorator is actually a @Directive decorator extended with template-oriented features.


While a component is technically a directive, components are so distinctive and central to Angular applications that this architectural overview separates components from directives.

虽然严格来说组件就是一个指令,但是组件非常独特,并在 Angular 中位于中心地位,所以在架构概览中,我们把组件从指令中独立了出来。

Two other kinds of directives exist: structural and attribute directives.

还有两种其它类型的指令:结构型指令和属性 (attribute) 型指令。

They tend to appear within an element tag as attributes do, sometimes by name but more often as the target of an assignment or a binding.

它们往往像属性 (attribute) 一样出现在元素标签中, 偶尔会以名字的形式出现,但多数时候还是作为赋值目标或绑定目标出现。

Structural directives alter layout by adding, removing, and replacing elements in DOM.

结构型指令通过在 DOM 中添加、移除和替换元素来修改布局。

The example template uses two built-in structural directives:


app/hero-list.component.html (structural)

<li *ngFor="let hero of heroes"></li> <hero-detail *ngIf="selectedHero"></hero-detail>

Attribute directives alter the appearance or behavior of an existing element. In templates they look like regular HTML attributes, hence the name.

属性型 指令修改一个现有元素的外观或行为。 在模板中,它们看起来就像是标准的 HTML 属性,故名。

The ngModel directive, which implements two-way data binding, is an example of an attribute directive. ngModel modifies the behavior of an existing element (typically an <input>) by setting its display value property and responding to change events.

ngModel指令就是属性型指令的一个例子,它实现了双向数据绑定。 ngModel修改现有元素(一般是<input>)的行为:设置其显示属性值,并响应 change 事件。

app/hero-detail.component.html (ngModel)

<input [(ngModel)]="hero.name">

Angular has a few more directives that either alter the layout structure (for example, ngSwitch) or modify aspects of DOM elements and components (for example, ngStyle and ngClass).

Angular 还有少量指令,它们或者修改结构布局(例如 ngSwitch), 或者修改 DOM 元素和组件的各个方面(例如 ngStylengClass)。

Of course, you can also write your own directives. Components such as HeroListComponent are one kind of custom directive.





Service is a broad category encompassing any value, function, or feature that your application needs.


Almost anything can be a service. A service is typically a class with a narrow, well-defined purpose. It should do something specific and do it well.

几乎任何东西都可以是一个服务。 典型的服务是一个类,具有专注的、明确的用途。它应该做一件特定的事情,并把它做好。

Examples include:


There is nothing specifically Angular about services. Angular has no definition of a service. There is no service base class, and no place to register a service.

服务没有什么特别属于 Angular 的特性。 Angular 对于服务也没有什么定义。 它甚至都没有定义服务的基类,也没有地方注册一个服务。

Yet services are fundamental to any Angular application. Components are big consumers of services.

即便如此,服务仍然是任何 Angular 应用的基础。组件就是最大的服务消费者。

Here's an example of a service class that logs to the browser console:


app/logger.service.ts (class)

export class Logger { log(msg: any) { console.log(msg); } error(msg: any) { console.error(msg); } warn(msg: any) { console.warn(msg); } }

Here's a HeroService that fetches heroes and returns them in a resolved Promise. The HeroService depends on the Logger service and another BackendService that handles the server communication grunt work.

下面是HeroService类,用于获取英雄数据,并通过一个已解析的承诺 (Promise) 返回它们。 HeroService还依赖于Logger服务和另一个用于处理服务器通讯的BackendService服务。

app/hero.service.ts (class)

export class HeroService { private heroes: Hero[] = []; constructor( private backend: BackendService, private logger: Logger) { } getHeroes() { this.backend.getAll(Hero).then( (heroes: Hero[]) => { this.logger.log(`Fetched ${heroes.length} heroes.`); this.heroes.push(...heroes); // fill cache }); return this.heroes; } }

Services are everywhere.


Component classes should be lean. They don't fetch data from the server, validate user input, or log directly to the console. They delegate such tasks to services.

组件类应保持精简。组件本身不从服务器获得数据、不进行验证输入,也不直接往控制台写日志。 它们把这些任务委托给服务。

A component's job is to enable the user experience and nothing more. It mediates between the view (rendered by the template) and the application logic (which often includes some notion of a model). A good component presents properties and methods for data binding. It delegates everything nontrivial to services.

组件的任务就是提供用户体验,仅此而已。它介于视图(由模板渲染)和应用逻辑(通常包括模型的某些概念)之间。 设计良好的组件为数据绑定提供属性和方法,把其它琐事都委托给服务。

Angular doesn't enforce these principles. It won't complain if you write a "kitchen sink" component with 3000 lines.

Angular 不会强制要求我们遵循这些原则。 即使我们花 3000 行代码写了一个“厨房洗碗槽”组件,它也不会抱怨什么。

Angular does help you follow these principles by making it easy to factor your application logic into services and make those services available to components through dependency injection.

Angular 帮助我们遵循这些原则 —— 它让我们能轻易地把应用逻辑拆分到服务,并通过依赖注入来在组件中使用这些服务。

Dependency injection



Dependency injection is a way to supply a new instance of a class with the fully-formed dependencies it requires. Most dependencies are services. Angular uses dependency injection to provide new components with the services they need.

“依赖注入”是提供类的新实例的一种方式,还负责处理好类所需的全部依赖。大多数依赖都是服务。 Angular 使用依赖注入来提供新组件以及组件所需的服务。

Angular can tell which services a component needs by looking at the types of its constructor parameters. For example, the constructor of your HeroListComponent needs a HeroService:

Angular 通过查看构造函数的参数类型得知组件需要哪些服务。 例如,HeroListComponent组件的构造函数需要一个HeroService服务:

app/hero-list.component.ts (constructor)

constructor(private service: HeroService) { }

When Angular creates a component, it first asks an injector for the services that the component requires.

当 Angular 创建组件时,会首先为组件所需的服务请求一个注入器 (injector)

An injector maintains a container of service instances that it has previously created. If a requested service instance is not in the container, the injector makes one and adds it to the container before returning the service to Angular. When all requested services have been resolved and returned, Angular can call the component's constructor with those services as arguments. This is dependency injection.

注入器维护了一个服务实例的容器,存放着以前创建的实例。 如果所请求的服务实例不在容器中,注入器就会创建一个服务实例,并且添加到容器中,然后把这个服务返回给 Angular。 当所有请求的服务都被解析完并返回时,Angular 会以这些服务为参数去调用组件的构造函数。 这就是依赖注入

The process of HeroService injection looks a bit like this:



If the injector doesn't have a HeroService, how does it know how to make one?


In brief, you must have previously registered a provider of the HeroService with the injector. A provider is something that can create or return a service, typically the service class itself.

简单的说,必须在要求注入HeroService之前,在注入器中注册HeroService提供商 Provider。 提供商用于创建并返回一个服务,通常是服务类本身。

You can register providers in modules or in components.


In general, add providers to the root module so that the same instance of a service is available everywhere.


app/app.module.ts (module providers)

providers: [ BackendService, HeroService, Logger ],

Alternatively, register at a component level in the providers property of the @Component metadata:


app/hero-list.component.ts (component providers)

@Component({ moduleId: module.id, selector: 'hero-list', templateUrl: 'hero-list.component.html', providers: [ HeroService ] })

Registering at a component level means you get a new instance of the service with each new instance of that component.


Points to remember about dependency injection:


Wrap up


You've learned the basics about the eight main building blocks of an Angular application:

我们学到的这些只是关于 Angular 应用程序的八个主要构造块的基础知识:

That's a foundation for everything else in an Angular application, and it's more than enough to get going. But it doesn't include everything you need to know.

这是 Angular 应用程序中所有其它东西的基础,要使用 Angular,以这些作为开端就绰绰有余了。 但它仍然没有包含我们需要知道的全部。

Here is a brief, alphabetical list of other important Angular features and services. Most of them are covered in this documentation (or soon will be).

这里是一个简短的、按字母排序的列表,列出了其它重要的 Angular 特性和服务。 它们大多数已经(或即将)包括在这份开发文档中:

Animations: Animate component behavior without deep knowledge of animation techniques or CSS with Angular's animation library.

动画:用 Angular 的动画库让组件动起来,而不需要对动画技术或 CSS 有深入的了解。

Change detection: The change detection documentation will cover how Angular decides that a component property value has changed, when to update the screen, and how it uses zones to intercept asynchronous activity and run its change detection strategies.

变更检测:变更检测文档会告诉你 Angular 是如何决定组件的属性值变化,什么时候该更新到屏幕, 以及它是如何利用区域 (zone) 来拦截异步活动并执行变更检测策略。

Events: The events documentation will cover how to use components and services to raise events with mechanisms for publishing and subscribing to events.


Forms: Support complex data entry scenarios with HTML-based validation and dirty checking.

表单:通过基于 HTML 的验证和脏检查机制支持复杂的数据输入场景。

HTTP: Communicate with a server to get data, save data, and invoke server-side actions with an HTTP client.

HTTP:通过 HTTP 客户端,可以与服务器通讯,以获得数据、保存数据和触发服务端动作。

Lifecycle hooks: Tap into key moments in the lifetime of a component, from its creation to its destruction, by implementing the lifecycle hook interfaces.


Pipes: Use pipes in your templates to improve the user experience by transforming values for display. Consider this currency pipe expression:


price | currency:'USD':true

It displays a price of "42.33" as $42.33.


Router: Navigate from page to page within the client application and never leave the browser.


Testing: Run unit tests on your application parts as they interact with the Angular framework using the Angular Testing Platform.

测试:使用 Angular 测试平台,在你的应用部件与 Angular 框架交互时进行单元测试。


AppModule: 根模块