组件样式

Angular applications are styled with regular CSS. That means we can apply everything we know about CSS stylesheets, selectors, rules, and media queries to our Angular applications directly.

Angular 应用使用标准的 CSS 来设置样式。这意味着我们可以把关于 CSS 的那些知识和技能直接用于我们的 Angular 程序中,例如:样式表、选择器、规则以及媒体查询等。

On top of this, Angular has the ability to bundle component styles with our components enabling a more modular design than regular stylesheets.

在此基础上,Angular 还能把组件样式捆绑在我们的组件上,以实现比标准样式表更加模块化的设计。

In this chapter we learn how to load and apply these component styles.

在本章中,我们将学到如何加载和使用这些组件样式

Table Of Contents

目录

Run the of the code shown in this chapter.

运行本章这些代码的在线例子

Using Component Styles

使用组件样式

For every Angular component we write, we may define not only an HTML template, but also the CSS styles that go with that template, specifying any selectors, rules, and media queries that we need.

对于我们写的每个 Angular 组件来说,除了定义 HTML 模板之外,我们还要定义用于模板的 CSS 样式、 指定任意的选择器、规则和媒体查询。

One way to do this is to set the styles property in the component metadata. The styles property takes an array of strings that contain CSS code. Usually we give it one string as in this example:

实现方式之一,是在组件的元数据中设置styles属性。 styles属性可以接受一个包含 CSS 代码的字符串数组。 通常我们只给它一个字符串就行了,如同下例:

@Component({ selector: 'hero-app', template: ` <h1>Tour of Heroes</h1> <hero-app-main [hero]=hero></hero-app-main>`, styles: ['h1 { font-weight: normal; }'] }) export class HeroAppComponent { /* . . . */ }

Component styles differ from traditional, global styles in a couple of ways.

组件样式在很多方面都不同于传统的全局性样式。

Firstly, the selectors we put into a component's styles only apply within the template of that component. The h1 selector in the example above only applies to the <h1> tag in the template of HeroAppComponent. Any <h1> elements elsewhere in the application are unaffected.

首先,我们放在组件样式中的选择器,只会应用在组件自身的模板中。上面这个例子中的h1选择器只会对 HeroAppComponent模板中的<h1>标签生效,而对应用中其它地方的<h1>元素毫无影响。

This is a big improvement in modularity compared to how CSS traditionally works:

这种模块化相对于 CSS 的传统工作方式是一个巨大的改进:

  1. We can use the CSS class names and selectors that make the most sense in the context of each component.

    可以使用对每个组件最有意义的 CSS 类名和选择器。

  2. Class names and selectors are local to the component and won't collide with classes and selectors used elsewhere in the application.

    类名和选择器是仅属于组件内部的,它不会和应用中其它地方的类名和选择器出现冲突。

  3. Our component's styles cannot be changed by changes to styles elsewhere in the application.

    我们组件的样式不会因为别的地方修改了样式而被意外改变。

  4. We can co-locate the CSS code of each component with the TypeScript and HTML code of the component, which leads to a neat and tidy project structure.

    我们可以让每个组件的 CSS 代码和它的 TypeScript、HTML 代码放在一起,这将促成清爽整洁的项目结构。

  5. We can change or remove component CSS code in the future without trawling through the whole application to see where else it may have been used. We just look at the component we're in.

    将来我们可以修改或移除组件的 CSS 代码,而不用遍历整个应用来看它有没有被别处用到,只要看看当前组件就可以了。

Special selectors

特殊的选择器

Component styles have a few special selectors from the world of shadow DOM style scoping:

组件样式中有一些从影子 DOM 样式范围 (Shadow DOM style scoping) 领域引入的特殊选择器

:host

:host

Use the :host pseudo-class selector to target styles in the element that hosts the component (as opposed to targeting elements inside the component's template):

使用:host伪类选择器,用来选择组件宿主元素中的元素(相对于组件模板内部的元素)。

:host { display: block; border: 1px solid black; }

This is the only way we can target the host element. We cannot reach it from inside the component with other selectors, because it is not part of the component's own template. It is in a parent component's template.

这是我们能以宿主元素为目标的唯一方式。除此之外,我们将没办法指定它, 因为宿主不是组件自身模板的一部分,而是父组件模板的一部分。

Use the function form to apply host styles conditionally by including another selector inside parentheses after :host.

要把宿主样式作为条件,就要像函数一样把其它选择器放在:host后面的括号中。

In the next example we target the host element again, but only when it also has the active CSS class.

在下一个例子中,我们又一次把宿主元素作为目标,但是只有当它同时带有active CSS 类的时候才会生效。

:host(.active) { border-width: 3px; }

:host-context

:host-context

Sometimes it is useful to apply styles based on some condition outside a component's view. For example, there may be a CSS theme class applied to the document <body> element, and we want to change how our component looks based on that.

有时候,基于某些来自组件视图外部的条件应用样式是很有用的。 例如,在文档的<body>元素上可能有一个用于表示样式主题 (theme) 的 CSS 类,而我们应当基于它来决定组件的样式。

Use the :host-context() pseudo-class selector. It works just like the function form of :host(). It looks for a CSS class in any ancestor of the component host element, all the way up to the document root. It's useful when combined with another selector.

这时可以使用:host-context()伪类选择器。它也以类似:host()形式使用。它在当前组件宿主元素的祖先节点中查找 CSS 类, 直到文档的根节点为止。在与其它选择器组合使用时,它非常有用。

In the following example, we apply a background-color style to all <h2> elements inside the component, only if some ancestor element has the CSS class theme-light.

在下面的例子中,只有当某个祖先元素有 CSS 类theme-light时,我们才会把background-color样式应用到组件内部的所有<h2>元素中。

:host-context(.theme-light) h2 { background-color: #eef; }

/deep/

/deep/

Component styles normally apply only to the HTML in the component's own template.

组件样式通常只会作用于组件自身的 HTML 上。

We can use the /deep/ selector to force a style down through the child component tree into all the child component views. The /deep/ selector works to any depth of nested components, and it applies both to the view children and the content children of the component.

我们可以使用/deep/选择器,来强制一个样式对各级子组件的视图也生效,它不但作用于组件的子视图,也会作用于组件的内容

In this example, we target all <h3> elements, from the host element down through this component to all of its child elements in the DOM:

在这个例子中,我们以所有的<h3>元素为目标,从宿主元素到当前元素再到 DOM 中的所有子元素:

:host /deep/ h3 { font-style: italic; }

The /deep/ selector also has the alias >>>. We can use either of the two interchangeably.

/deep/选择器还有一个别名>>>。我们可以任意交替使用它们。

The /deep/ and >>> selectors should only be used with emulated view encapsulation. This is the default and it is what we use most of the time. See the Controlling View Encapsulation section for more details.

/deep/>>>选择器只能被用在仿真 (emulated) 模式下。 这种方式是默认值,也是用得最多的方式。 更多信息,见控制视图封装模式一节。

Loading Styles into Components

把样式加载进组件中

We have several ways to add styles to a component:

我们有几种方式来把样式加入组件:

The scoping rules outlined above apply to each of these loading patterns.

上述作用域规则对所有这些加载模式都适用。

Styles in Metadata

元数据中的样式

We can add a styles array property to the @Component decorator. Each string in the array (usually just one string) defines the CSS.

我们可以给@Component装饰器添加一个styles数组型属性。 这个数组中的每一个字符串(通常也只有一个)定义一份 CSS。

@Component({ selector: 'hero-app', template: ` <h1>Tour of Heroes</h1> <hero-app-main [hero]=hero></hero-app-main>`, styles: ['h1 { font-weight: normal; }'] }) export class HeroAppComponent { /* . . . */ }

Template Inline Styles

模板内联样式

We can embed styles directly into the HTML template by putting them inside <style> tags.

我们也可以把它们放到<style>标签中来直接在 HTML 模板中嵌入样式。

@Component({ selector: 'hero-controls', template: ` <style> button { background-color: white; border: 1px solid #777; } </style> <h3>Controls</h3> <button (click)="activate()">Activate</button> ` })

Style URLs in Metadata

元数据中的样式表 URL

We can load styles from external CSS files by adding a styleUrls attribute into a component's @Component decorator:

我们还可以通过给组件的@Component装饰器中添加一个styleUrls属性来从外部 CSS 文件中加载样式:

@Component({ selector: 'hero-details', template: ` <h2>{{hero.name}}</h2> <hero-team [hero]=hero></hero-team> <ng-content></ng-content> `, styleUrls: ['app/hero-details.component.css'] }) export class HeroDetailsComponent { /* . . . */ }

The URL is relative to the application root which is usually the location of the index.html web page that hosts the application. The style file URL is not relative to the component file. That's why the example URL begins src/app/. See Appendix 2 to specify a URL relative to the component file.

URL是相对于应用程序根目录的,它通常是应用的宿主页面index.html所在的地方。 这个样式文件的 URL 不是相对于组件文件的。这就是为什么范例中的 URL 用app/开头。 参见附录 2 来了解如何指定相对于组件文件的 URL。

Users of module bundlers like Webpack may also use the styles attribute to load styles from external files at build time. They could write:

像 Webpack 这类模块打包器的用户可能会使用styles属性来在构建时从外部文件中加载样式。它们可能这样写:

styles: [require('my.component.css')]

styles: [require('my.component.css')]

We set the styles property, not styleUrls property! The module bundler is loading the CSS strings, not Angular. Angular only sees the CSS strings after the bundler loads them. To Angular it is as if we wrote the styles array by hand. Refer to the module bundler's documentation for information on loading CSS in this manner.

注意,这时候我们是在设置styles属性,而不是styleUrls属性! 是模块打包器在加载 CSS 字符串,而不是 Angular。 Angular 看到的只是打包器加载它们之后的 CSS 字符串。 对 Angular 来说,这跟我们手写了styles数组没有任何区别。 要了解这种 CSS 加载方式的更多信息,请参阅相应模块打包器的文档。

We can also embed <link> tags into the component's HTML template.

我们也可以在组件的 HTML 模板中嵌入<link>标签。

As with styleUrls, the link tag's href URL is relative to the application root, not relative to the component file.

styleUrls标签一样,这个 link 标签的href指向的 URL 也是相对于应用的根目录的,而不是组件文件。

@Component({ selector: 'hero-team', template: ` <link rel="stylesheet" href="app/hero-team.component.css"> <h3>Team</h3> <ul> <li *ngFor="let member of hero.team"> {{member}} </li> </ul>` })

CSS @imports

CSS @imports

We can also import CSS files into our CSS files by using the standard CSS @import rule.

我们还可以利用标准的 CSS @import规则来把其它 CSS 文件导入到我们的 CSS 文件中。

In this case the URL is relative to the CSS file into which we are importing.

这种情况下,URL 是相对于我们执行导入操作的 CSS 文件的。

src/app/hero-details.component.css (excerpt)

@import 'hero-details-box.css';

Controlling View Encapsulation: Native, Emulated, and None

控制视图的封装模式:原生 (Native)、仿真 (Emulated) 和无 (None)

As discussed above, component CSS styles are encapsulated into the component's own view and do not affect the rest of the application.

像上面讨论过的一样,组件的 CSS 样式被封装进了自己的视图中,而不会影响到应用程序的其它部分。

We can control how this encapsulation happens on a per component basis by setting the view encapsulation mode in the component metadata. There are three modes to choose from:

通过在组件的元数据上设置视图封装模式,我们可以分别控制每个组件的封装模式。 可选的封装模式一共有三种:

Set the components encapsulation mode using the encapsulation property in the component metadata:

通过组件元数据中的encapsulation属性来设置组件封装模式:

// warning: few browsers support shadow DOM encapsulation at this time encapsulation: ViewEncapsulation.Native

Native view encapsulation only works on browsers that have native support for Shadow DOM. The support is still limited, which is why Emulated view encapsulation is the default mode and recommended in most cases.

原生(Native)模式只适用于有原生 Shadow DOM 支持的浏览器。 因此仍然受到很多限制,这就是为什么我们会把仿真 (Emulated) 模式作为默认选项,并建议将其用于大多数情况。

Appendix 1: Inspecting The CSS Generated in Emulated View Encapsulation

附录 1:查看仿真 (Emulated) 模式下生成的 CSS

When using the default emulated view encapsulation, Angular preprocesses all component styles so that they approximate the standard Shadow CSS scoping rules.

当使用默认的仿真模式时,Angular 会对组件的所有样式进行预处理,让它们模仿出标准的 Shadow CSS 作用域规则。

When we inspect the DOM of a running Angular application with emulated view encapsulation enabled, we see that each DOM element has some extra attributes attached to it:

当我们查看启用了仿真模式的 Angular 应用时,我们看到每个 DOM 元素都被加上了一些额外的属性。

<hero-details _nghost-pmm-5> <h2 _ngcontent-pmm-5>Mister Fantastic</h2> <hero-team _ngcontent-pmm-5 _nghost-pmm-6> <h3 _ngcontent-pmm-6>Team</h3> </hero-team> </hero-detail>

We see two kinds of generated attributes:

我们看到了两种被生成的属性:

The exact values of these attributes are not important. They are automatically generated and we never refer to them in application code. But they are targeted by the generated component styles, which we'll find in the <head> section of the DOM:

这些属性的具体值并不重要。它们是自动生成的,并且我们永远不会在程序代码中直接引用到它们。 但它们会作为生成的组件样式的目标,就像我们在 DOM 的<head>区所看到的:

[_nghost-pmm-5] { display: block; border: 1px solid black; } h3[_ngcontent-pmm-6] { background-color: white; border: 1px solid #777; }

These are the styles we wrote, post-processed so that each selector is augmented with _nghost or _ngcontent attribute selectors. These extra selectors enable the scoping rules described in this guide.

这些就是我们写的那些样式被处理后的结果,于是每个选择器都被增加了_nghost_ngcontent属性选择器。 在这些附加选择器的帮助下,我们实现了本指南中所描述的这些作用域规则。

We'll likely live with emulated mode until shadow DOM gains traction.

小伙伴们会很愉快的使用仿真模式 —— 直到有一天 Shadow DOM 获得全面支持。

Appendix 2: Loading Styles with Relative URLs

附录 2:使用相对 URL 加载样式

It's common practice to split a component's code, HTML, and CSS into three separate files in the same directory:

把组件的代码 (ts/js)、HTML 和 CSS 分别放到同一个目录下的三个不同文件,是一个常用的实践:

quest-summary.component.ts quest-summary.component.html quest-summary.component.css

We include the template and CSS files by setting the templateUrl and styleUrls metadata properties respectively. Because these files are co-located with the component, it would be nice to refer to them by name without also having to specify a path back to the root of the application.

我们会通过设置元数据的templateUrlstyleUrls属性把模板和 CSS 文件包含进来。 既然这些文件都与组件(代码)文件放在一起,那么通过名字,而不是到应用程序根目录的全路径来指定它,就会是一个漂亮的方式。

We can change the way Angular calculates the full URL be setting the component metadata's moduleId property to module.id.

通过把组件元数据的moduleId属性设置为module.id,我们可以更改 Angular 计算完整 URL 的方式

src/app/quest-summary.component.ts

@Component({ moduleId: module.id, selector: 'quest-summary', templateUrl: './quest-summary.component.html', styleUrls: ['./quest-summary.component.css'] }) export class QuestSummaryComponent { }

Learn more about moduleId in the Component-Relative Paths chapter.

更多关于moduleId的信息,见相对于组件的路径