表单

We’ve all used a form to log in, submit a help request, place an order, book a flight, schedule a meeting and perform countless other data entry tasks. Forms are the mainstay of business applications.

表单是商业应用的支柱,我们用它来执行登录、求助、下单、预订机票、安排会议,以及不计其数的其它数据录入任务。

Any seasoned web developer can slap together an HTML form with all the right tags. It's more challenging to create a cohesive data entry experience that guides the user efficiently and effectively through the workflow behind the form.

任何经验丰富的 Web 开发人员都能使用适当的标签拼凑出 HTML 表单。 但是,要想做出具有贴心的数据输入体验的表单, 引导用户明晰、高效地完成表单背后的工作流程,挑战就大多了。

That takes design skills that are, to be frank, well out of scope for this guide.

坦白地讲,这当中所需要的设计技能超出了本章的范围。

It also takes framework support for two-way data binding, change tracking, validation, and error handling ... which we shall cover in this guide on Angular forms.

双向数据绑定、变更跟踪、有效性验证和错误处理等功能离不开框架的支持。 本章将介绍 Angular 表单相关的内容。

We will build a simple form from scratch, one step at a time. Along the way we'll learn how to

下面,从零开始,一步一步构建出一个简单的表单。在这个过程中,我们将学会如何:

Run the .

运行在线例子

Template-Driven Forms

模板驱动的表单

Many of us will build forms by writing templates in the Angular template syntax with the form-specific directives and techniques described in this guide.

通常,使用 Angular 模板语法编写模板,结合本章所描述的表单专用指令和技术来构建表单。

That's not the only way to create a form but it's the way we'll cover in this guide.

这不是创建表单的唯一方式,本章中只介绍模板驱动的表单。

We can build almost any form we need with an Angular template — login forms, contact forms ... pretty much any business forms. We can lay out the controls creatively, bind them to data, specify validation rules and display validation errors, conditionally enable or disable specific controls, trigger built-in visual feedback, and much more.

利用 Angular 模板,可以构建几乎所有表单 — 登录表单、联系人表单…… 以及任何的商务表单。 可以创造性的摆放各种控件、把它们绑定到数据、指定校验规则、显示校验错误、有条件的禁用或 启用特定的控件、触发内置的视觉反馈等等,不胜枚举。

It will be pretty easy because Angular handles many of the repetitive, boiler plate tasks we'd otherwise wrestle with ourselves.

它用起来很简单,这是因为 Angular 处理了大多数重复、单调的任务,这让我们可以不必亲自操刀、身陷其中。

We'll discuss and learn to build the following template-driven form:

我们将讨论和学习构建如下的“模板驱动”表单:

Clean Form

Here at the Hero Employment Agency we use this form to maintain personal information about the heroes in our stable. Every hero needs a job. It's our company mission to match the right hero with the right crisis!

这里是英雄职业介绍所,使用这个表单来维护候选英雄们的个人信息。每个英雄都需要一份工作。 公司的任务就是让适当的英雄去解决它/她所擅长应对的危机!

Two of the three fields on this form are required. Required fields have a green bar on the left to make them easy to spot.

表单中的三个字段,其中两个是必填的。必填的字段在左侧有个绿色的竖条,方便用户分辨哪些是必填项。

If we delete the hero name, the form displays a validation error in an attention grabbing style:

如果删除了英雄的名字,表单就会用醒目的样式把验证错误显示出来。

无效!名字是必填项

Note that the submit button is disabled and the "required" bar to the left of the input control changed from green to red.

注意,提交按钮被禁用了,而且输入控件左侧的“必填”条从绿色变为了红色。

We'll customize the colors and location of the "required" bar with standard CSS.

稍后,会使用标准 CSS 来定制“必填”条的颜色和位置。

We will build this form in the following sequence of small steps

按下面的步骤,一点一点构建此表单:

  1. Create the Hero model class

    创建Hero模型类

  2. Create the component that controls the form

    创建控制此表单的组件

  3. Create a template with the initial form layout

    创建具有初始表单布局的模板

  4. Bind data properties to each form input control with the ngModel two-way data binding syntax

    使用ngModel双向数据绑定语法把数据属性绑定到每个表单输入控件

  5. Add the name attribute to each form input control

    往每个表单输入控件上添加name属性 (attribute)

  6. Add custom CSS to provide visual feedback

    添加自定义 CSS 来提供视觉反馈

  7. Show and hide validation error messages

    显示和隐藏有效性验证的错误信息

  8. Handle form submission with ngSubmit

    使用 ngSubmit 处理表单提交

  9. Disable the form’s submit button until the form is valid

    禁用此表单的提交按钮,直到表单变为有效

Setup

搭建

Follow the setup instructions for creating a new project named angular-forms.

按照搭建本地开发环境的说明,创建一个名为angular-forms的新项目。

Create the Hero Model Class

创建 Hero 模型类

As users enter form data, we capture their changes and update an instance of a model. We can't layout the form until we know what the model looks like.

当用户输入表单数据时,需要捕获它们的变化,并更新到模型的实例中。 除非知道模型里有什么,否则无法设计表单的布局。

A model can be as simple as a "property bag" that holds facts about a thing of application importance. That describes well our Hero class with its three required fields (id, name, power) and one optional field (alterEgo).

最简单的模型是个“属性包”,用来存放应用中一件事物的事实。 这里使用三个必备字段 (idnamepower),和一个可选字段 (alterEgo,译注:中文含义是第二人格,例如 X 战警中的 Jean / 黑凤凰)。

Create a new file in the app folder called hero.ts and give it the following class definition:

在应用文件夹中创建hero.ts文件,并且写入下列类定义内容:

app/hero.ts

export class Hero { constructor( public id: number, public name: string, public power: string, public alterEgo?: string ) { } }

It's an anemic model with few requirements and no behavior. Perfect for our demo.

这是一个少量需求和零行为的贫血模型。对演示来说很完美。

The TypeScript compiler generates a public field for each public constructor parameter and assigns the parameter’s value to that field automatically when we create new heroes.

TypeScript 编译器为每个public构造函数参数生成一个公共字段,在创建新的英雄实例时,自动把参数值赋给这些公共字段。

The alterEgo is optional and the constructor lets us omit it; note the (?) in alterEgo?.

alterEgo是可选的,调用构造函数时可省略,注意alterEgo?中的问号 (?)。

We can create a new hero like this:

可以像这样创建新英雄:

let myHero = new Hero(42, 'SkyDog', 'Fetch any object at any distance', 'Leslie Rollover'); console.log('My hero is called ' + myHero.name); // "My hero is called SkyDog"

Create a Form component

创建表单组件

An Angular form has two parts: an HTML-based template and a component class to handle data and user interactions programmatically.

Angular 表单分为两部分:基于 HTML 的模板和组件,用来程序处理数据和用户交互。

We begin with the class because it states, in brief, what the hero editor can do.

先从组件类开始,是因为它可以简要说明英雄编辑器能做什么。

Create a new file called hero-form.component.ts and give it the following definition:

创建名叫hero-form.component.ts的文件,放进下列定义:

app/hero-form.component.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from './hero'; @Component({ moduleId: module.id, selector: 'hero-form', templateUrl: 'hero-form.component.html' }) export class HeroFormComponent { powers = ['Really Smart', 'Super Flexible', 'Super Hot', 'Weather Changer']; model = new Hero(18, 'Dr IQ', this.powers[0], 'Chuck Overstreet'); submitted = false; onSubmit() { this.submitted = true; } // TODO: Remove this when we're done get diagnostic() { return JSON.stringify(this.model); } }

There’s nothing special about this component, nothing form-specific, nothing to distinguish it from any component we've written before.

这个组件没有什么特别的地方,没有表单相关的东西,与之前写过的组件没什么不同。

Understanding this component requires only the Angular concepts we’ve learned in previous guides

只需要前面章节中学过的概念,就可以完全理解这个组件:

  1. We import the Component decorator from the Angular library as we usually do.

    像往常一样,从 Angular 库中导入Component装饰器。

  2. We import the Hero model we just created.

    导入刚刚创建的Hero模型。

  3. The @Component selector value of "hero-form" means we can drop this form in a parent template with a <hero-form> tag.

    @Component选择器"hero-form"表示可以用<hero-form>标签把这个表单放进父模板。

  4. The moduleId: module.id property sets the base for module-relative loading of the templateUrl.

    moduleId: module.id属性设置了基地址,用于从相对模块路径加载templateUrl

  5. The templateUrl property points to a separate file for the template HTML called hero-form.component.html.

    templateUrl属性指向一个独立的 HTML 模板文件,名叫hero-form.component.html

  6. We defined dummy data for model and powers as befits a demo. Down the road, we can inject a data service to get and save real data or perhaps expose these properties as inputs and outputs for binding to a parent component. None of this concerns us now and these future changes won't affect our form.

    modelpowers定义了供演示用的假数据。 将来,可以注入服务来获取和保存真实数据, 或者暴露这些属性为输入与输出属性,绑定到父组件上。 先不关心这些,因为这些未来的变化不会影响到表单。

  7. We threw in a diagnostic property at the end to return a JSON representation of our model. It'll help us see what we're doing during our development; we've left ourselves a cleanup note to discard it later.

    在最后增加diagnostic属性,它返回这个模型的 JSON 形式。 在开发过程中,它用于调试,最后清理时会丢弃它。

Why the separate template file?

为何分离模板文件?

Why don't we write the template inline in the component file as we often do elsewhere?

为什么不与我们在其他地方常常做的那样,以内联的方式把模板写在组件文件中呢?

There is no “right” answer for all occasions. We like inline templates when they are short. Most form templates won't be short. TypeScript and JavaScript files generally aren't the best place to write (or read) large stretches of HTML and few editors are much help with files that have a mix of HTML and code. We also like short files with a clear and obvious purpose like this one.

没有什么答案在所有场合都总是“正确”的。当模板足够短的时候,内联形式更招人喜欢。 但大多数的表单模板都不短。通常,TypeScript 和 JavaScript 文件不是写(读)大型 HTML 的好地方, 而且没有几个编辑器能对混写的 HTML 和代码提供足够的帮助。 我们还是喜欢内容清晰、目标明确的短文件,像这个一样。

Form templates tend to be quite large even when displaying a small number of fields so it's usually best to put the HTML template in a separate file. We'll write that template file in a moment. Before we do, we'll take a step back and revise the app.module.ts and app.component.ts to make use of the new HeroFormComponent.

就算是在仅仅显示少数表单项目时,表单模板一般都比较庞大。所以通常最好的方式是将 HTML 模板放到单独的文件中。 一会儿将编写这个模板文件。在这之前,先退一步,再看看app.module.tsapp.component.ts,让它们使用新的HeroFormComponent

Revise the app.module.ts

修改 app.module.ts

app.module.ts defines the application's root module. In it we identify the external modules we'll use in our application and declare the components that belong to this module, such as our HeroFormComponent.

app.module.ts定义了应用的根模块。其中标识即将用到的外部模块,以及声明属于本模块中的组件,例如HeroFormComponent

Because template-driven forms are in their own module, we need to add the FormsModule to the array of imports for our application module before we can use forms.

因为模板驱动的表单位于它们自己的模块,所以在使用表单之前,需要将FormsModule添加到应用模块的imports数组中。

Replace the contents of the "QuickStart" version with the following:

把“快速起步”版的文件替换为如下内容:

app/app.module.ts

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser'; import { FormsModule } from '@angular/forms'; import { AppComponent } from './app.component'; import { HeroFormComponent } from './hero-form.component'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, FormsModule ], declarations: [ AppComponent, HeroFormComponent ], bootstrap: [ AppComponent ] }) export class AppModule { }

There are three changes:

有三处更改:

  1. We import FormsModule and our new HeroFormComponent.

    导入FormsModule和新组件HeroFormComponent

  2. We add the FormsModule to the list of imports defined in the ngModule decorator. This gives our application access to all of the template-driven forms features, including ngModel.

    FormsModule添加到ngModule装饰器的imports列表中,这样应用就能访问模板驱动表单的所有特性,包括ngModel

  3. We add the HeroFormComponent to the list of declarations defined in the ngModule decorator. This makes the HeroFormComponent component visible throughout this module.

    HeroFormComponent添加到ngModule装饰器的declarations列表中,使HeroFormComponent组件在整个模块中可见。

If a component, directive, or pipe belongs to a module in the imports array, ​DON'T​ re-declare it in the declarations array. If you wrote it and it should belong to this module, ​DO​ declare it in the declarations array.

如果组件、指令或管道出现在模块的imports数组中,不要把它声明在declarations数组中。 如果它是你自己写的,并且属于当前模块,就要把它声明在declarations数组中。

Revise the app.component.ts

修改 app.component.ts

app.component.ts is the application's root component. It will host our new HeroFormComponent.

app.component.ts是应用的根组件,HeroFormComponent将被放在其中。

Replace the contents of the "QuickStart" version with the following:

把"快速起步"的版本内容替换成下列代码:

app/app.component.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; @Component({ selector: 'my-app', template: '<hero-form></hero-form>' }) export class AppComponent { }

There is only one change.

仅有的一处修改。

  1. The template is simply the new element tag identified by the component's selector property. This will display the hero form when the application component is loaded.

  2. template中只有新元素标签,即组件的selector属性。当应用组件被加载时,将显示这个英雄表单。

Create an initial HTML Form Template

创建初始 HTML 表单模板

Create a new template file called hero-form.component.html and give it the following definition:

新建模板文件,命名为hero-form.component.html,并且填写如下内容:

app/hero-form.component.html

<div class="container"> <h1>Hero Form</h1> <form> <div class="form-group"> <label for="name">Name</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" required> </div> <div class="form-group"> <label for="alterEgo">Alter Ego</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="alterEgo"> </div> <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default">Submit</button> </form> </div>

That is plain old HTML 5. We're presenting two of the Hero fields, name and alterEgo, and opening them up for user input in input boxes.

这只是一段普通的旧式 HTML 5 代码。这里有两个Hero字段,namealterEgo,供用户输入。

The Name <input> control has the HTML5 required attribute; the Alter Ego <input> control does not because alterEgo is optional.

Name <input>控件具有 HTML5 的required属性;但 Alter Ego <input>控件没有,因为alterEgo字段是可选的。

We've got a Submit button at the bottom with some classes on it for styling.

底部有个 Submit 按钮,具有一些 CSS 样式类。

We are not using Angular yet. There are no bindings. No extra directives. Just layout.

还没有真正用到Angular。没有绑定,没有额外的指令,只有布局。

The container, form-group, form-control, and btn classes come from Twitter Bootstrap. Purely cosmetic. We're using Bootstrap to give the form a little style!

containerform-groupform-controlbtn类来自 Twitter Bootstrap。纯粹是装饰。 我们使用 Bootstrap 来美化表单。嘿,一点样式都没有的表单算个啥!

Angular Forms Do Not Require A Style Library
Angular 表单不需要任何样式库

Angular makes no use of the container, form-group, form-control, and btn classes or the styles of any external library. Angular apps can use any CSS library ... or none at all.

Angular 不需要containerform-groupform-controlbtn类, 或者外部库的任何样式。Angular 应用可以使用任何 CSS 库…… ,或者啥都不用。

Let's add the stylesheet.

添加样式表。

  1. Open a terminal window in the application root folder and enter the command:

    在应用的根目录下打开终端窗口,输入如下命令:

    npm install bootstrap --save
  2. Open index.html and add the following link to the <head>.

    打开index.html文件并且把下列链接添加到<head>中。

    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://unpkg.com/bootstrap@3.3.7/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css">

Add Powers with *ngFor

ngFor 添加超能力

Our hero may choose one super power from a fixed list of Agency-approved powers. We maintain that list internally (in HeroFormComponent).

英雄可以从认证过的固定列表中选择一项超能力。 这个列表位于HeroFormComponent中。

We'll add a select to our form and bind the options to the powers list using ngFor, a technique seen previously in the Displaying Data guide.

在表单中添加select,用ngForpowers列表绑定到列表选项。 我们在之前的显示数据一章中见过ngFor

Add the following HTML immediately below the Alter Ego group.

Alter Ego 的紧下方添加如下 HTML:

app/hero-form.component.html (excerpt)

<div class="form-group"> <label for="power">Hero Power</label> <select class="form-control" id="power" required> <option *ngFor="let pow of powers" [value]="pow">{{pow}}</option> </select> </div>

We are repeating the <options> tag for each power in the list of Powers. The pow template input variable is a different power in each iteration; we display its name using the interpolation syntax with the double-curly-braces.

列表中的每一项超能力都会渲染成<option>标签。 模板输入变量p在每个迭代指向不同的超能力,使用双花括号插值表达式语法来显示它的名称。

Two-way data binding with ngModel

使用 ngModel 进行双向数据绑定

Running the app right now would be disappointing.

如果立即运行此应用,你将会失望。

没有数据绑定的早期表单

We don't see hero data because we are not binding to the Hero yet. We know how to do that from earlier guides. Displaying Data taught us Property Binding. User Input showed us how to listen for DOM events with an Event Binding and how to update a component property with the displayed value.

因为还没有绑定到某个英雄,所以看不到任何数据。 解决方案见前面的章节。 显示数据介绍了属性绑定。 用户输入介绍了如何通过事件绑定来监听 DOM 事件,以及如何用显示值更新组件的属性。

Now we need to display, listen, and extract at the same time.

现在,需要同时进行显示、监听和提取。

We could use those techniques again in our form. Instead we'll introduce something new, the [(ngModel)] syntax, that makes binding our form to the model super-easy.

虽然可以在表单中再次使用这些技术。 但是,这里将介绍个新东西,[(ngModel)]语法,使表单绑定到模型的工作变得超级简单。

Find the <input> tag for the "Name" and update it like this

找到 “Name” 对应的<input>标签,并且像这样修改它:

app/hero-form.component.html (节选)

<input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" required [(ngModel)]="model.name" name="name"> TODO: remove this: {{model.name}}

We appended a diagnostic interpolation after the input tag so we can see what we're doing. We left ourselves a note to throw it away when we're done.

在 input 标签后添加用于诊断的插值表达式,以看清正在发生什么事。 给自己留个备注,提醒我们完成后移除它。

Focus on the binding syntax: [(ngModel)]="...".

聚焦到绑定语法[(ngModel)]="..."上。

If we ran the app right now and started typing in the Name input box, adding and deleting characters, we'd see them appearing and disappearing from the interpolated text. At some point it might look like this.

如果现在运行这个应用,开始在姓名输入框中键入,添加和删除字符,将看到它们从插值结果中显示和消失。 某一瞬间,它看起来可能是这样:

操作中的ngModel

The diagnostic is evidence that we really are flowing values from the input box to the model and back again. That's two-way data binding!

诊断信息可以证明,数据确实从输入框流动到模型,再反向流动回来。这就是双向数据绑定!

Notice that we also added a name attribute to our <input> tag and set it to "name" which makes sense for the hero's name. Any unique value will do, but using a descriptive name is helpful. Defining a name attribute is a requirement when using [(ngModel)] in combination with a form.

注意,<input>标签还添加了name属性 (attribute),并设置为 "name",表示英雄的名字。 使用任何唯一的值都可以,但使用具有描述性的名字会更有帮助。 当在表单中使用[(ngModel)]时,必须要定义name属性。

Internally Angular creates FormControls and registers them with an NgForm directive that Angular attached to the <form> tag. Each FormControl is registered under the name we assigned to the name attribute. We'll talk about NgForm later in this guide.

在内部,Angular 创建了一些FormControl,并把它们注册到NgForm指令,再将该指令附加到<form>标签。 注册每个FormControl时,使用name属性值作为键值。本章后面会讨论NgForm

Let's add similar [(ngModel)] bindings and name attributes to Alter Ego and Hero Power. We'll ditch the input box binding message and add a new binding at the top to the component's diagnostic property. Then we can confirm that two-way data binding works for the entire hero model.

第二人格超能力属性添加类似的[(ngModel)]绑定和name属性。 抛弃输入框的绑定消息,在组件顶部添加到diagnostic属性的新绑定。 这样就能确认双向数据绑定在整个 Hero 模型上都能正常工作了。

After revision the core of our form should have three [(ngModel)] bindings and name attributes that look much like this:

修改之后的表单,其核心是三个[(ngModel)]绑定,看起来像这样:

app/hero-form.component.html (节选)

{{diagnostic}} <div class="form-group"> <label for="name">Name</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" required [(ngModel)]="model.name" name="name"> </div> <div class="form-group"> <label for="alterEgo">Alter Ego</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="alterEgo" [(ngModel)]="model.alterEgo" name="alterEgo"> </div> <div class="form-group"> <label for="power">Hero Power</label> <select class="form-control" id="power" required [(ngModel)]="model.power" name="power"> <option *ngFor="let pow of powers" [value]="pow">{{pow}}</option> </select> </div>

If we ran the app right now and changed every hero model property, the form might display like this:

如果现在运行本应用,修改 Hero 模型的每个属性,表单看起来像这样:

ngModel in super action

The diagnostic near the top of the form confirms that all of our changes are reflected in the model.

表单顶部的诊断信息反映出所做的一切更改。

Delete the {{diagnostic}} binding at the top as it has served its purpose.

表单顶部的{{diagnostic}}绑定已经完成了它的使命,删除它。

Inside [(ngModel)]

[(ngModel)]内幕

This section is an optional deep dive into [(ngModel)]. Not interested? Skip ahead!

本节是对[(ngModel)]的深入剖析,它是可选的。不感兴趣?跳过它!

The punctuation in the binding syntax, [()], is a good clue to what's going on.

绑定语法中的[()]是很好的线索。

In a Property Binding, a value flows from the model to a target property on screen. We identify that target property by surrounding its name in brackets, []. This is a one-way data binding from the model to the view.

在属性绑定中,值从模型中流动到屏幕上的目标属性 (property)。 通过把属性名括在方括号中来标记出目标属性,[]。 这是从模型到视图的单向数据绑定。

In an Event Binding, we flow the value from the target property on screen to the model. We identify that target property by surrounding its name in parentheses, (). This is a one-way data binding in the opposite direction from the view to the model.

在事件绑定中,值从屏幕上的目标属性流动到模型。 通过把属性名括在圆括号中来标记出目标属性,()。 这是从视图到模型的反向单向数据绑定。

No wonder Angular chose to combine the punctuation as [()] to signify a two-way data binding and a flow of data in both directions.

不出所料,Angular 选择了组合标点 [()] 来标记出双向数据绑定和双向数据流

In fact, we can break the NgModel binding into its two separate modes as we do in this re-write of the "Name" <input> binding:

事实上,可以把NgModel绑定拆成两个独立的绑定,就像下面重写的 “Name” <input>绑定一样:

app/hero-form.component.html (excerpt)

<input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" required [ngModel]="model.name" name="name" (ngModelChange)="model.name = $event" > TODO: remove this: {{model.name}}


The Property Binding should feel familiar. The Event Binding might seem strange.


这个属性绑定看起来很眼熟,但事件绑定看起来有点怪。

The ngModelChange is not an <input> element event. It is actually an event property of the NgModel directive. When Angular sees a binding target in the form [(x)], it expects the x directive to have an x input property and an xChange output property.

ngModelChange并不是<input>元素的事件。 它实际上是来自NgModel指令的事件属性。 当 Angular 在表单中看到[(x)]的绑定目标时, 它会期待这个x指令有一个名为x的输入属性,和一个名为xChange的输出属性。

The other oddity is the template expression, model.name = $event. We're used to seeing an $event object coming from a DOM event. The ngModelChange property doesn't produce a DOM event; it's an Angular EventEmitter property that returns the input box value when it fires — which is precisely what we should assign to the model's name property.

模板表达式中的另一个古怪之处是model.name = $event。 之前看到的$event对象来自 DOM 事件。 但ngModelChange属性不会生成 DOM 事件 —— 它是Angular EventEmitter类型的属性,当它触发时, 它返回的是输入框的值 —— 也正是希望赋给模型name属性的值。

Nice to know but is it practical? We almost always prefer [(ngModel)]. We might split the binding if we had to do something special in the event handling such as debounce or throttle the key strokes.

很高兴知道这些,但是这样现实吗?实践上中,几乎总是优先使用[(ngModel)]形式的双向绑定。 只有当需要在事件处理函数中做一些特别的事情(例如合并或限制按键频率)时,才会拆分出独立的事件处理函数。

Learn more about NgModel and other template syntax in the Template Syntax guide.

要学习ngModel和其它模板语法的更多知识,见模板语法

Track change-state and validity with ngModel

通过 ngModel 跟踪修改状态与有效性验证

A form isn't just about data binding. We'd also like to know the state of the controls on our form.

表单不仅是关于数据绑定的。我们还想知道表单中各个控件的状态。

Using ngModel in a form gives us more than just two way data binding. It also tells us if the user touched the control, if the value changed, or if the value became invalid.

在表单中使用ngModel可以获得比仅使用双向数据绑定更多的控制权。它还会告诉我们很多信息:用户碰过此控件吗?它的值变化了吗?数据变得无效了吗?

The NgModel directive doesn't just track state; it updates the control with special Angular CSS classes that reflect the state. We can leverage those class names to change the appearance of the control and make messages appear or disappear.

NgModel 指令不仅仅跟踪状态。它还使用特定的 Angular CSS 类来更新控件,以反映当前状态。 可以利用这些 CSS 类来修改控件的外观,显示或隐藏消息。

State

状态

Class if true

为真时的 CSS 类

Class if false

为假时的 CSS 类

Control has been visited

控件已经被访问过

ng-touched

ng-touched

ng-untouched

ng-untouched

Control's value has changed

控件值已经变化

ng-dirty

ng-dirty

ng-pristine

ng-pristine

Control's value is valid

控件值是有效的

ng-valid

ng-valid

ng-invalid

ng-invalid

Let's add a temporary template reference variable named spy to the "Name" <input> tag and use the spy to display those classes.

往姓名<input>标签上添加名叫 spy 的临时模板引用变量, 然后用这个 spy 来显示它上面的所有 CSS 类。

app/hero-form.component.html (excerpt)

<input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" required [(ngModel)]="model.name" name="name" #spy > <br>TODO: remove this: {{spy.className}}

Now run the app and focus on the Name input box. Follow the next four steps precisely

现在,运行本应用,并让姓名输入框获得焦点。 然后严格按照下面四个步骤来做:

  1. Look but don't touch

    查看输入框,但别碰它

  2. Click in the input box, then click outside the text input box

    点击输入框,然后点击输入框外面

  3. Add slashes to the end of the name

    在名字的末尾添加些斜杠

  4. Erase the name

    删除名字

The actions and effects are as follows:

动作和它对应的效果如下:

控件状态转换

We should be able to see the following four sets of class names and their transitions:

应该能看到下列四组类名以及它们的变迁:

控件状态转换

The (ng-valid | ng-invalid) pair are most interesting to us. We want to send a strong visual signal when the data are invalid and we want to mark required fields. So we add custom CSS for visual feedback.

(ng-valid | ng-invalid)这一对是我们最感兴趣的。当数据变得无效时,我们希望发出强力的视觉信号, 还想要标记出必填字段。可以通过加入自定义 CSS 来提供视觉反馈。

Delete the #spy template reference variable and TODO as they have served their purpose.

删除模板引用变量#spyTODO,因为它们已经完成了使命。

Add Custom CSS for Visual Feedback

添加用于视觉反馈的自定义 CSS

We realize we can mark required fields and invalid data at the same time with a colored bar on the left of the input box:

可以在输入框的左侧添加带颜色的竖条,用于标记必填字段和无效输入:

无效表单

We achieve this effect by adding two styles to a new forms.css file that we add to our project as a sibling to index.html.

在新建的forms.css文件中,添加两个样式来实现这一效果。把这个文件添加到项目中,与index.html相邻。

forms.css

.ng-valid[required], .ng-valid.required { border-left: 5px solid #42A948; /* green */ } .ng-invalid:not(form) { border-left: 5px solid #a94442; /* red */ }

These styles select for the two Angular validity classes and the HTML 5 "required" attribute.

这些样式的作用于两个 Angular 有效性类和 HTML 5 的 “required” 属性。

We update the <head> of the index.html to include this style sheet.

更新index.html中的<head>来包含这个样式表。

index.html (节选)

<link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="forms.css">

Show and Hide Validation Error messages

显示和隐藏验证错误信息

We can do better.

我们能做的更好。

The "Name" input box is required. Clearing it turns the bar red. That says something is wrong but we don't know what is wrong or what to do about it. We can leverage the ng-invalid class to reveal a helpful message.

“Name” 输入框是必填的,清空它会让左侧的条变红。这表示某些东西是错的,但我们不知道错在哪里,或者如何纠正。 可以借助ng-invalid类来给出有用的提示。

Here's the way it should look when the user deletes the name:

当用户删除姓名时,看起来应该是这样的:

必须填写姓名

To achieve this effect we extend the <input> tag with

要达到这个效果,在<input>标签中添加:

  1. a template reference variable

    模板引用变量

  2. the "is required" message in a nearby <div> which we'll display only if the control is invalid.

    “is required”消息,放在邻近的<div>元素中,只有当控件无效时,才显示它。

Here's how we do it for the name input box:

Name 输入框做如下修改:

app/hero-form.component.html (节选)

<label for="name">Name</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" required [(ngModel)]="model.name" name="name" #name="ngModel" > <div [hidden]="name.valid || name.pristine" class="alert alert-danger"> Name is required </div>

We need a template reference variable to access the input box's Angular control from within the template. Here we created a variable called name and gave it the value "ngModel".

模板引用变量可以访问模板中输入框的 Angular 控件。 这里,创建了名叫name的变量,并且赋值为 "ngModel"。

Why "ngModel"? A directive's exportAs property tells Angular how to link the reference variable to the directive. We set name to ngModel because the ngModel directive's exportAs property happens to be "ngModel".

为什么是 “ngModel”? 指令的 exportAs 属性告诉 Angular 如何链接模板引用变量到指令。 这里把name设置为ngModel是因为ngModel指令的exportAs属性设置成了 “ngModel”。

Now we can control visibility of the "name" error message by binding properties of the name control to the message <div> element's hidden property.

现在,把div元素的hidden属性绑定到name控件的属性,这样就可以控制“姓名”字段错误信息的可见性了。

app/hero-form.component.html (节选)

<div [hidden]="name.valid || name.pristine" class="alert alert-danger">

In this example, we hide the message when the control is valid or pristine; pristine means the user hasn't changed the value since it was displayed in this form.

上例中,当控件是有效的 (valid) 或全新的 (pristine) 时,隐藏消息。 “全新的”意味着从它被显示在表单中开始,用户还从未修改过它的值。

This user experience is the developer's choice. Some folks want to see the message at all times. If we ignore the pristine state, we would hide the message only when the value is valid. If we arrive in this component with a new (blank) hero or an invalid hero, we'll see the error message immediately, before we've done anything.

这种用户体验取决于开发人员的选择。有些人会希望任何时候都显示这条消息。 如果忽略了pristine状态,就会只在值有效时隐藏此消息。 如果往这个组件中传入全新(空)的英雄,或者无效的英雄,将立刻看到错误信息 —— 虽然我们还啥都没做。

Some folks find that behavior disconcerting. They only want to see the message when the user makes an invalid change. Hiding the message while the control is "pristine" achieves that goal. We'll see the significance of this choice when we add a new hero to the form.

有些人会为这种行为感到不安。它们希望只有在用户做出无效的更改时才显示这个消息。 如果当控件是“全新”状态时也隐藏消息,就能达到这个目的。 在往表单中添加新英雄时,将看到这种选择的重要性。

The hero Alter Ego is optional so we can leave that be.

英雄的第二人格是可选项,所以不用改它。

Hero Power selection is required. We can add the same kind of error handling to the <select> if we want but it's not imperative because the selection box already constrains the power to valid value.

英雄的超能力选项是必填的。 只要愿意,可以往<select>上添加相同的错误处理。 但没有必要,这个选择框已经限制了“超能力”只能选有效值。

Add a hero and reset the form

添加英雄及重置表单

We'd like to add a new hero in this form. We place a "New Hero" button at the bottom of the form and bind its click event to a newHero component method.

我们希望在这个表单中添加新的英雄。 在表单的底部放置“New Hero(新增英雄)”按钮,并把它的点击事件绑定到newHero组件。

app/hero-form.component.html (新增英雄按钮)

<button type="button" class="btn btn-default" (click)="newHero()">New Hero</button>

app/hero-form.component.ts (新英雄方法)

newHero() { this.model = new Hero(42, '', ''); }

Run the application again, click the New Hero button, and the form clears. The required bars to the left of the input box are red, indicating invalid name and power properties. That's understandable as these are required fields. The error messages are hidden because the form is pristine; we haven't changed anything yet.

再次运行应用,点击 New Hero 按钮,表单被清空了。 输入框左侧的必填项竖条是红色的,表示namepower属性是无效的。 这可以理解,因为有一些必填字段。 错误信息是隐藏的,因为表单还是全新的,还没有修改任何东西。

Enter a name and click New Hero again. The app displays a Name is required error message! We don't want error messages when we create a new (empty) hero. Why are we getting one now?

输入名字,再次点击 New Hero 按钮。 这次,出现了错误信息!为什么?我们不希望显示新(空)的英雄时,出现错误信息。

Inspecting the element in the browser tools reveals that the name input box is no longer pristine. The form remembers that we entered a name before clicking New Hero. Replacing the hero did not restore the pristine state of the form controls.

使用浏览器工具审查这个元素就会发现,这个 name 输入框并不是全新的。 表单记得我们在点击 New Hero 前输入的名字。 更换了英雄并不会重置控件的“全新”状态

We have to clear all of the flags imperatively which we can do by calling the form's reset() method after calling the newHero() method.

我们必须清除所有标记,在调用newHero()方法后调用表单的reset()方法即可。

app/hero-form.component.html (Reset the form)

<button type="button" class="btn btn-default" (click)="newHero(); heroForm.reset()">New Hero</button>

Now clicking "New Hero" both resets the form and its control flags.

现在点击“New Hero”重设表单和它的控制标记。

Submit the form with ngSubmit

使用 ngSubmit 提交表单

The user should be able to submit this form after filling it in. The Submit button at the bottom of the form does nothing on its own but it will trigger a form submit because of its type (type="submit").

在填表完成之后,用户还应该能提交这个表单。 “Submit(提交)”按钮位于表单的底部,它自己不做任何事,但因为有特殊的 type 值 (type="submit"),所以会触发表单提交。

A "form submit" is useless at the moment. To make it useful, we'll update the <form> tag with another Angular directive, NgSubmit, and bind it to the HeroFormComponent.submit() method with an event binding

仅仅触发“表单提交”在目前是没用的。 要让它有用,还要用另外的 Angular 指令更新<form>标签 —— NgSubmit, 并且通过事件绑定把它绑定到HeroFormComponent.submit()方法。

<form (ngSubmit)="onSubmit()" #heroForm="ngForm">

We slipped in something extra there at the end! We defined a template reference variable, #heroForm, and initialized it with the value, "ngForm".

上面代码的最后出现一些额外的东西!定义了模板引用变量#heroForm,并初始化为 "ngForm"。

The variable heroForm is now a reference to the NgForm directive that governs the form as a whole.

现在heroForm变量引用的是NgForm指令,它代表的是表单的整体。

The NgForm directive

NgForm指令

What NgForm directive? We didn't add an NgForm directive!

什么NgForm指令?之前没有添加过 NgForm 指令啊!

Angular did. Angular creates and attaches an NgForm directive to the <form> tag automatically.

是 Angular 干的。Angular 自动创建了NgForm指令,并把它附加到<form>标签。

The NgForm directive supplements the form element with additional features. It holds the controls we created for the elements with ngModel directive and name attribute and monitors their properties including their validity. It also has its own valid property which is true only if every contained control is valid.

NgForm指令为form元素扩充了额外的特性。 它持有通过ngModel指令和name属性为各个元素创建的那些控件,并且监视它们的属性变化,包括有效性。 它还有自己的valid属性,只有当其中所有控件都有效时,它才有效。

Later in the template we bind the button's disabled property to the form's over-all validity via the heroForm variable. Here's that bit of markup:

模板中稍后的部分,通过heroForm变量把按钮的disabled属性绑定到表单的整体有效性。这里是那点 HTML:

<button type="submit" class="btn btn-default" [disabled]="!heroForm.form.valid">Submit</button>

Re-run the application. The form opens in a valid state and the button is enabled.

重新运行应用。表单打开时,状态是有效的,按钮是可用的。

Now delete the Name. We violate the "name required" rule which is duly noted in our error message as before. And now the Submit button is also disabled.

现在,删除姓名。我们违反了“必填姓名”规则,它还是像以前那样显示出错误信息。同时,Submit 按钮也被禁用了。

Not impressed? Think about it for a moment. What would we have to do to wire the button's enable/disabled state to the form's validity without Angular's help?

没感动吗?再想一会儿。如果没有 Angular NgForm的帮助,又该怎么让按钮的禁用/启用状态和表单的有效性关联起来呢?

For us, it was as simple as

有了 Angular,它就是这么简单:

  1. Define a template reference variable on the (enhanced) form element

    定义模板引用变量,放在(强化过的)form 元素上

  2. Reference that variable in a button some 50 lines away.

    从50行之外的按钮上引用这个变量。

Toggle two form regions (extra credit)

切换两个表单区域(额外的奖励)

Submitting the form isn't terribly dramatic at the moment.

提交表单还是不够激动人心。

An unsurprising observation for a demo. To be honest, jazzing it up won't teach us anything new about forms. But this is an opportunity to exercise some of our newly won binding skills. If you're not interested, you can skip to the guide's conclusion and not miss a thing.

对演示来说,这个收场很平淡的。老实说,即使让它更出彩,也无法教给我们任何关于表单的新知识。 但这是练习新学到的绑定技能的好机会。 如果你不感兴趣,可以跳到本章的总结部分,不用担心错失任何东西。

Let's do something more strikingly visual. Let's hide the data entry area and display something else.

来实现一些更炫的视觉效果吧。 隐藏掉数据输入框,显示一些其它东西。

Start by wrapping the form in a <div> and bind its hidden property to the HeroFormComponent.submitted property.

先把表单包裹进<div>中,再把它的hidden属性绑定到HeroFormComponent.submitted属性。

app/hero-form.component.html (节选)

<div [hidden]="submitted"> <h1>Hero Form</h1> <form (ngSubmit)="onSubmit()" #heroForm="ngForm"> <!-- ... all of the form ... --> </form> </div>

The main form is visible from the start because the the submitted property is false until we submit the form, as this fragment from the HeroFormComponent reminds us:

主表单从一开始就是可见的,因为submitted属性是 false,直到提交了这个表单。 来自HeroFormComponent的代码片段告诉了我们这一点:

submitted = false; onSubmit() { this.submitted = true; }

When we click the Submit button, the submitted flag becomes true and the form disappears as planned.

当点击 Submit 按钮时,submitted标志会变成 true,并且表单像预想中一样消失了。

Now we need to show something else while the form is in the submitted state. Add the following block of HTML below the <div> wrapper we just wrote:

现在,当表单处于已提交状态时,需要显示一些别的东西。 在刚刚写的<div>包装下方,添加下列 HTML 块:

app/hero-form.component.html (节选)

<div [hidden]="!submitted"> <h2>You submitted the following:</h2> <div class="row"> <div class="col-xs-3">Name</div> <div class="col-xs-9 pull-left">{{ model.name }}</div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-xs-3">Alter Ego</div> <div class="col-xs-9 pull-left">{{ model.alterEgo }}</div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-xs-3">Power</div> <div class="col-xs-9 pull-left">{{ model.power }}</div> </div> <br> <button class="btn btn-default" (click)="submitted=false">Edit</button> </div>

There's our hero again, displayed read-only with interpolation bindings. This slug of HTML only appears while the component is in the submitted state.

英雄又出现了,它通过插值表达式绑定显示为只读内容。 这一小段 HTML 只在组件处于已提交状态时才会显示。

We added an Edit button whose click event is bound to an expression that clears the submitted flag.

添加了 “Edit(编辑)”按钮,将 click 事件绑定到表达式,用于清除submitted标志。

When we click it, this block disappears and the editable form reappears.

当点它时,这个只读块消失了,可编辑的表单重新出现了。

That's as much drama as we can muster for now.

够炫吗?好吧,我们已经尽力了!

Conclusion

结论

The Angular form techniques discussed in this guide take advantage of the following framework features to provide support for data modification, validation and more:

本章讨论的 Angular 表单技术利用了下列框架特性来支持数据修改、验证和更多操作:

Our final project folder structure should look like this:

最终的项目目录结构看起来是这样:

angular-forms
app
app.component.ts
app.module.ts
hero.ts
hero-form.component.html
hero-form.component.ts
main.ts
node_modules ...
index.html
package.json
tsconfig.json

Here’s the final version of the source:

这里是源码的最终版本:

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from './hero'; @Component({ moduleId: module.id, selector: 'hero-form', templateUrl: 'hero-form.component.html' }) export class HeroFormComponent { powers = ['Really Smart', 'Super Flexible', 'Super Hot', 'Weather Changer']; model = new Hero(18, 'Dr IQ', this.powers[0], 'Chuck Overstreet'); submitted = false; onSubmit() { this.submitted = true; } newHero() { this.model = new Hero(42, '', ''); } } <div class="container"> <div [hidden]="submitted"> <h1>Hero Form</h1> <form (ngSubmit)="onSubmit()" #heroForm="ngForm"> <div class="form-group"> <label for="name">Name</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" required [(ngModel)]="model.name" name="name" #name="ngModel" > <div [hidden]="name.valid || name.pristine" class="alert alert-danger"> Name is required </div> </div> <div class="form-group"> <label for="alterEgo">Alter Ego</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="alterEgo" [(ngModel)]="model.alterEgo" name="alterEgo" > </div> <div class="form-group"> <label for="power">Hero Power</label> <select class="form-control" id="power" required [(ngModel)]="model.power" name="power" #power="ngModel" > <option *ngFor="let pow of powers" [value]="pow">{{pow}}</option> </select> <div [hidden]="power.valid || power.pristine" class="alert alert-danger"> Power is required </div> </div> <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default" [disabled]="!heroForm.form.valid">Submit</button> <button type="button" class="btn btn-default" (click)="newHero(); heroForm.reset()">New Hero</button> </form> </div> <div [hidden]="!submitted"> <h2>You submitted the following:</h2> <div class="row"> <div class="col-xs-3">Name</div> <div class="col-xs-9 pull-left">{{ model.name }}</div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-xs-3">Alter Ego</div> <div class="col-xs-9 pull-left">{{ model.alterEgo }}</div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-xs-3">Power</div> <div class="col-xs-9 pull-left">{{ model.power }}</div> </div> <br> <button class="btn btn-default" (click)="submitted=false">Edit</button> </div> </div> export class Hero { constructor( public id: number, public name: string, public power: string, public alterEgo?: string ) { } } import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser'; import { FormsModule } from '@angular/forms'; import { AppComponent } from './app.component'; import { HeroFormComponent } from './hero-form.component'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, FormsModule ], declarations: [ AppComponent, HeroFormComponent ], bootstrap: [ AppComponent ] }) export class AppModule { } import { Component } from '@angular/core'; @Component({ selector: 'my-app', template: '<hero-form></hero-form>' }) export class AppComponent { } import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic'; import { AppModule } from './app.module'; platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule); <html> <head> <title>Hero Form</title> <meta charset="UTF-8"> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://unpkg.com/bootstrap@3.3.7/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="forms.css"> <!-- Polyfills for older browsers --> <script src="node_modules/core-js/client/shim.min.js"></script> <script src="node_modules/zone.js/dist/zone.js"></script> <script src="node_modules/reflect-metadata/Reflect.js"></script> <script src="node_modules/systemjs/dist/system.src.js"></script> <script src="systemjs.config.js"></script> <script> System.import('app').catch(function(err){ console.error(err); }); </script> </head> <body> <my-app>Loading...</my-app> </body> </html> .ng-valid[required], .ng-valid.required { border-left: 5px solid #42A948; /* green */ } .ng-invalid:not(form) { border-left: 5px solid #a94442; /* red */ }

下一步

依赖注入