从 1.x 升级

Having an existing Angular 1 application doesn't mean that we can't begin enjoying everything Angular 2 has to offer. That's because Angular 2 comes with built-in tools for migrating Angular 1 projects over to the Angular 2 platform.

已经有了一个Angular 1的程序并不表示我们就不能享受Angular 2提供的一切。 这是因为Angular 2带来了一些内置工具,来帮助我们把Angular 1的项目迁移到Angular 2平台。

Some applications will be easier to upgrade than others, and there are ways in which we can make it easier for ourselves. It is possible to prepare and align Angular 1 applications with Angular 2 even before beginning the upgrade process. These preparation steps are all about making the code more decoupled, more maintainable, and up to speed with modern development tools. That means the preparation work will not only make the eventual upgrade easier, but will also generally improve our Angular 1 applications.

有些应用可能比其它的升级起来简单,还有一些方法能让把这项工作变得更简单。 即使在正式开始升级过程之前,我们可以准备Angular 1的程序,让它向Angular 2看齐。 这些准备步骤几乎都是关于如何让代码更加松耦合、更有可维护性,以及用现代开发工具提高速度的。 这意味着,这种准备工作不仅能让最终的升级变得更简单,而且还能提升Angular 1程序的质量。

One of the keys to a successful upgrade is to do it incrementally, by running the two frameworks side by side in the same application, and porting Angular 1 components to Angular 2 one by one. This makes it possible to upgrade even large and complex applications without disrupting other business, because the work can be done collaboratively and spread over a period of time. The upgrade module in Angular 2 has been designed to make incremental upgrading seamless.

成功升级的关键之一是增量式的实现它,通过在同一个应用中一起运行这两个框架,并且逐个把Angular 1的组件迁移到Angular 2中。 这意味着可以在不必打断其它业务的前提下,升级更大、更复杂的应用程序,因为这项工作可以多人协作完成,在一段时间内逐渐铺开。 Angular 2 upgrade模块的设计目标就是让你渐进、无缝的完成升级。

  1. Preparation
  2. 准备工作
    1. Follow the Angular Style Guide
    2. 遵循Angular风格指南
    3. Using a Module Loader
    4. 使用模块加载器
    5. Migrating to TypeScript
    6. 迁移到TypeScript
    7. Using Component Directives
    8. 使用组件型指令
  3. Upgrading with The Upgrade Module
  4. 通过升级模块进行升级
    1. How The Upgrade Module Works
    2. 升级模块是如何工作的
    3. Bootstrapping hybrid Angular 1+2 Applications
    4. 引导Angular 1和2的混合(hybrid)应用
    5. Using Angular 2 Components from Angular 1 Code
    6. 从Angular 1的代码中使用Angular 2的组件
    7. Using Angular 1 Component Directives from Angular 2 Code
    8. 从Angular 2的代码中使用Angular 1的组件
    9. Projecting Angular 1 Content into Angular 2 Components
    10. 把Angular 1的内容投影(project)进Angular 2组件中
    11. Transcluding Angular 2 Content into Angular 1 Component Directives
    12. 把Angular 2的内容透传(transclude)到Angular 1的组件型指令中
    13. Making Angular 1 Dependencies Injectable to Angular 2
    14. 让Angular 1提供的依赖可以被注入到Angular 2
    15. Making Angular 2 Dependencies Injectable to Angular 1
    16. 让Angular 2提供的依赖可以被注入到Angular 1
  5. PhoneCat Upgrade Tutorial
  6. PhoneCat准备工作教程
    1. Switching to TypeScript
    2. 切换到TypeScript
    3. Installing Angular 2
    4. 安装Angular 2
    5. Bootstrapping a hybrid 1+2 PhoneCat
    6. 引导Angular 1+2的混合版PhoneCat
    7. Upgrading the Phone service
    8. 升级Phone服务
    9. Upgrading Components
    10. 升级组件
    11. Switching To The Angular 2 Router And Bootstrap
    12. 切换到Angular 2的路由器并引导
    13. Saying Goodbye to Angular 1
  7. Appendix: Upgrading PhoneCat Tests
  8. 附录:升级PhoneCat测试

Preparation

准备工作

There are many ways to structure Angular 1 applications. When we begin to upgrade these applications to Angular 2, some will turn out to be much more easy to work with than others. There are a few key techniques and patterns that we can apply to future proof our apps even before we begin the migration.

Angular 1应用程序的组织方式有很多种。当我们想把它们升级到Angular 2的时候, 有些做起来会比其它的更容易些。即使在我们开始升级之前,也有一些关键的技术和模式可以让我们将来升级时更轻松。

Follow the Angular Style Guide

遵循Angular风格指南

The Angular 1 Style Guide collects patterns and practices that have been proven to result in cleaner and more maintainable Angular 1 applications. It contains a wealth of information about how to write and organize Angular code - and equally importantly - how not to write and organize Angular code.

Angular风格指南收集了一些已证明能写出干净且可维护的Angular 1程序的模式与实践。 它包含了很多关于如何书写和组织Angular代码的有价值信息,同样重要的是,不应该采用的书写和组织Angular代码的方式。

Angular 2 is a reimagined version of the best parts of Angular 1. In that sense, its goals are the same as the Angular Style Guide's: To preserve the good parts of Angular 1, and to avoid the bad parts. There's a lot more to Angular 2 than just that of course, but this does mean that following the style guide helps make your Angular 1 app more closely aligned with Angular 2.

Angular 2是一个基于Angular 1中最好的部分构思出来的版本。在这种意义上,它的目标和Angular风格指南是一样的: 保留Angular 1中好的部分,去掉坏的部分。当然,Angular 2还做了更多。 说这些的意思是:遵循这个风格指南可以让你写出更接近Angular 2程序的Angular 1程序

There are a few rules in particular that will make it much easier to do an incremental upgrade using the Angular 2 upgrade module:

特别是某些规则会让使用Angular 2的upgrade模块进行增量升级变得更简单:

When an application is laid out feature per feature in this way, it can also be migrated one feature at a time. For applications that don't already look like this, applying the rules in the Angular style guide is a highly recommended preparation step. And this is not just for the sake of the upgrade - it is just solid advice in general!

如果应用程序能用这种方式把每个特性分到一个独立目录中,它也就能每次迁移一个特性。 对于那些还没有这么做的程序,强烈建议把应用这条规则作为准备步骤。而且这也不仅仅对升级有价值, 它还是一个通用的规则,可以让你的程序更“坚实”。

Using a Module Loader

使用模块加载器

When we break application code down into one component per file, we often end up with a project structure with a large number of relatively small files. This is a much neater way to organize things than a small number of large files, but it doesn't work that well if you have to load all those files to the HTML page with <script> tags. Especially when you also have to maintain those tags in the correct order. That's why it's a good idea to start using a module loader.

当我们把应用代码分解成每个文件中放一个组件之后,我们通常会得到一个由大量相对较小的文件组成的项目结构。 这比组织成少量大文件要整洁得多,但如果你不得不通过<script>标签在HTML页面中加载所有这些文件,那就不好玩了。 尤其是当你不得不按正确的顺序维护这些标签时更是如此。 这就是为什么开始使用模块加载器是一个好主意了。

Using a module loader such as SystemJS, Webpack, or Browserify allows us to use the built-in module systems of the TypeScript or ES2015 languages in our apps. We can use the import and export features that explicitly specify what code can and will be shared between different parts of the application. For ES5 applications we can use CommonJS style require and module.exports features. In both cases, the module loader will then take care of loading all the code the application needs in the correct order.

使用模块加载器,比如SystemJSWebpackBrowserify, 可以让我们在程序中使用TypeScript或ES2015语言内置的模块系统。 我们可以使用importexport特性来明确指定哪些代码应该以及将会被在程序的不同部分之间共享。 对于ES5程序来说,我们可以改用CommonJS风格的requiremodule.exports特性代替。 无是论哪种情况,模块加载器都会按正确的顺序加载程序中用到的所有代码。

When we then take our applications into production, module loaders also make it easier to package them all up into production bundles with batteries included.

当我们的应用程序投入生产环境时,模块加载器也会让把所有这些文件打成完整的产品包变得更容易。

Migrating to TypeScript

迁移到TypeScript

If part of our Angular 2 upgrade plan is to also take TypeScript into use, it makes sense to bring in the TypeScript compiler even before the upgrade itself begins. This means there's one less thing to learn and think about during the actual upgrade. It also means we can start using TypeScript features in our Angular 1 code.

Angular 2升级计划的一部分是引入TypeScript,即使在开始升级之前,引入TypeScript编译器也是有意义的。 这意味着等真正升级的时候需要学习和思考的东西更少。 它还意味着我们可以在Angular 1代码中开始使用TypeScript的特性。

Since TypeScript is a superset of ECMAScript 2015, which in turn is a superset of ECMAScript 5, "switching" to TypeScript doesn't necessarily require anything more than installing the TypeScript compiler and switching renaming files from *.js to *.ts. But just doing that is not hugely useful or exciting, of course. Additional steps like the following can give us much more bang for the buck:

因为TypeScript是ECMAScript 2015的一个超集,而ES2015又是ECMAScript 5的一个超集。 这意味着除了安装一个TypeScript编译器,并把文件名都从*.js改成*.ts之外,其实什么都不用做。 当然,如果仅仅这样做也没什么大用,也没什么令人兴奋之处。 下面这些额外步骤可以让我们精神抖擞起来:

Using Component Directives

使用组件型指令

In Angular 2, components are the main primitive from which user interfaces are built. We define the different parts of our UIs as components, and then compose the UI by using components in our templates.

在Angular 2中,组件是用来构建用户界面的主要元素。我们把UI中的不同部分定义成组件,然后通过在模板中使用这些组件最终合成为UI。

You can also do this in Angular 1, using component directives. These are directives that define their own templates, controllers, and input/output bindings - the same things that Angular 2 components define. Applications built with component directives are much easier to migrate to Angular 2 than applications built with lower-level features like ng-controller, ng-include, and scope inheritance.

我们在Angular 1中也能这么做。那就是一种定义了自己的模板、控制器和输入/输出绑定的指令 —— 跟Angular 2中对组件的定义是一样的。 要迁移到Angular 2,通过组件型指令构建的应用程序会比直接用ng-controllerng-include和作用域继承等底层特性构建的要容易得多。

To be Angular 2 compatible, an Angular 1 component directive should configure these attributes:

要与Angular 2兼容,Angular 1的组件型指令应该配置下列属性:

Component directives may also use the following attributes:

组件型指令还可能使用下列属性:

Component directives may not use the following attributes:

组件型指令不能使用下列属性:

An Angular 1 component directive that is fully aligned with the Angular 2 architecture may look something like this:

Angular 1中一个完全向Angular 2架构看齐过的组件型指令看起来有点像这样:

export function heroDetailDirective() { return { restrict: 'E', scope: {}, bindToController: { hero: '=', deleted: '&' }, template: ` <h2>{{ctrl.hero.name}} details!</h2> <div><label>id: </label>{{ctrl.hero.id}}</div> <button ng-click="ctrl.onDelete()">Delete</button> `, controller: function() { this.onDelete = () => { this.deleted({hero: this.hero}); }; }, controllerAs: 'ctrl' }; }

Angular 1.5 introduces the component API that makes it easier to define directives like these. It is a good idea to use this API for component directives for several reasons:

Angular 1.5引入了组件API,它让像这样定义指令变得更简单了。 为组件型指令使用这个API是一个好主意,因为:

The component directive example from above looks like this when expressed using the component API:

如果使用这个组件API进行快捷定义,那么上面看到的组件型指令就变成了这样:

export const heroDetail = { bindings: { hero: '<', deleted: '&' }, template: ` <h2>{{$ctrl.hero.name}} details!</h2> <div><label>id: </label>{{$ctrl.hero.id}}</div> <button ng-click="$ctrl.onDelete()">Delete</button> `, controller: function() { this.onDelete = () => { this.deleted(this.hero); }; } }; import { Directive, ElementRef, Injector, Input, Output, EventEmitter } from '@angular/core'; import { UpgradeComponent } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; import { Hero } from '../hero'; @Directive({ selector: 'hero-detail' }) export class HeroDetailDirective extends UpgradeComponent { @Input() hero: Hero; @Output() deleted: EventEmitter<Hero>; constructor(elementRef: ElementRef, injector: Injector) { super('heroDetail', elementRef, injector); } }

Controller lifecycle hook methods $onInit(), $onDestroy(), and $onChanges() are another convenient feature that Angular 1.5 introduces. They all have nearly exact equivalents in Angular 2, so organizing component lifecycle logic around them will ease the eventual Angular 2 upgrade process.

控制器的生命周期钩子$onInit()$onDestroy()$onChanges()是Angular 1.5引入的另一些便利特性。 它们都很接近于Angular 2中的等价物,所以,围绕它们组织组件生命周期的逻辑会更容易升级。

Upgrading with The Upgrade Module

使用升级适配器进行升级

The upgrade module in Angular 2 is a very useful tool for upgrading anything but the smallest of applications. With it we can mix and match Angular 1 and 2 components in the same application and have them interoperate seamlessly. That means we don't have to do the upgrade work all at once, since there's a natural coexistence between the two frameworks during the transition period.

不管要升级什么,Angular 2中的upgrade模块都会是一个非常有用的工具 —— 除非是小到没功能的应用。 借助它,我们可以在同一个应用程序中混用并匹配Angular 1和2的组件,并让它们实现无缝的互操作。 这意味着我们不用必须一次性做完所有升级工作,因为在整个演进过程中,这两个框架可以很自然的和睦相处。

How The Upgrade Module Works

升级模块如何工作

The primary tool provided by the upgrade module is called the UpgradeModule. This is a service that can bootstrap and manage hybrid applications that support both Angular 2 and Angular 1 code.

upgrade模块提供的主要工具叫做UpgradeModule。这是一个服务,它可以引导并管理同时支持Angular 2和Angular 1的混合式应用程序。

When we use UpgradeModule, what we're really doing is running both versions of Angular at the same time. All Angular 2 code is running in the Angular 2 framework, and Angular 1 code in the Angular 1 framework. Both of these are the actual, fully featured versions of the frameworks. There is no emulation going on, so we can expect to have all the features and natural behavior of both frameworks.

当使用UpgradeModule时,我们实际做的是同时运行两个版本的Angular。所有Angular 2的代码运行在Angular 2框架中, 而Angular 1的代码运行在Angular 1框架中。所有这些都是真实的、全功能的框架版本。 没有进行任何仿真,所以我们可以期待同时存在这两个框架的所有特性和天生的行为。

What happens on top of this is that components and services managed by one framework can interoperate with those from the other framework. This happens in three main areas: Dependency injection, the DOM, and change detection.

所有这些事情的背后,本质上是一个框架中管理的组件和服务能和来自另一个中的进行互操作。 这发生在三个主要的领域:依赖注入、DOM和变更检测。

Dependency Injection

依赖注入

Dependency injection is front and center in both Angular 1 and Angular 2, but there are some key differences between the two frameworks in how it actually works.

无论是在Angular 1中还是在Angular 2中,依赖注入都处于前沿和中心的位置,但在两个框架的工作原理上,却存在着一些关键的不同之处。

Angular 1Angular 2

Dependency injection tokens are always strings

依赖注入的令牌(Token)永远是字符串(译注:指服务名称)。

Tokens can have different types. They are often classes. They may also be strings.

令牌可能有不同的类型。 通常是类,也可能是字符串。

There is exactly one injector. Even in multi-module applications, everything is poured into one big namespace.

只有一个注入器。即使在多模块的应用程序中,每样东西也都被装入一个巨大的命名空间中。

There is a tree hierarchy of injectors, with a root injector and an additional injector for each component.

有一组树状多层注入器,有一个根注入器,每个组件也另外有一个注入器。

Even accounting for these differences we can still have dependency injection interoperability. The UpgradeModule resolves the differences and makes everything work seamlessly:

就算有这么多不同点,也并不妨碍我们在依赖注入时进行互操作。UpgradeModule解决了这些差异,并让它们无缝的对接:

The two injectors in a hybrid application

Components and the DOM

组件与DOM

What we'll find in the DOM of a hybrid application are components and directives from both Angular 1 and Angular 2. These components communicate with each other by using the input and output bindings of their respective frameworks, which the UpgradeModule bridges together. They may also communicate through shared injected dependencies, as described above.

在混合式应用中,我们能同时发现那些来自Angular 1和Angular 2中组件和指令的DOM。 这些组件通过它们各自框架中的输入和输出绑定来互相通讯,它们由UpgradeModule桥接在一起。 它们也能通过共享被注入的依赖彼此通讯,就像前面所说的那样。

There are two key things to understand about what happens in the DOM of a hybrid application:

要弄明白在一个混合式应用的DOM中发生了什么,有两点很关键:

  1. Every element in the DOM is owned by exactly one of the two frameworks. The other framework ignores it. If an element is owned by Angular 1, Angular 2 treats it as if it didn't exist, and vice versa.

  2. DOM中的每个元素都只能被两个框架之一拥有。另一个框架会忽略它。 如果一个元素被Angular 1拥有,Angular 2就会当它不存在。反之亦然。

  3. The root of the application is always an Angular 1 template.

  4. 应用的根节点总是来自Angular 1中的模板

So a hybrid application begins life as an Angular 1 application, and it is Angular 1 that processes its root template. Angular 2 then steps into the picture when an Angular 2 component is used somewhere in the application templates. That component's view will then be managed by Angular 2, and it may use any number of Angular 2 components and directives.

所以,混合式应用总是像Angular 1程序那样启动,处理根模板的也是Angular 1. 然后,当这个应用的模板中使用到了Angular 2的组件时,Angular 2才开始参与。 这个组件的视图由Angular 2进行管理,而且它还可以使用一系列的Angular 2组件和指令。

Beyond that, we may interleave the two frameworks as much as we need to. We always cross the boundary between the two frameworks by one of two ways:

更进一步说,我们可以按照需要,任意穿插使用这两个框架。 使用下面的两种方式之一,我们可以自由穿梭于这两个框架的边界:

  1. By using a component from the other framework: An Angular 1 template using an Angular 2 component, or an Angular 2 template using an Angular 1 component.

  2. 通过使用来自另一个框架的组件:Angular 1的模板中用到了Angular 2的组件,或者Angular 2的模板中使用了Angular 1的组件。

  3. By transcluding or projecting content from the other framework. The UpgradeModule bridges the related concepts of Angular 1 transclusion and Angular 2 content projection together.

  4. 通过透传(transclude)或投影(project)来自另一个框架的内容。UpgradeModule牵线搭桥,把Angular 1的透传概念和Angular 2的内容投影概念关联起来。

DOM element ownership in a hybrid application

Whenever we use a component that belongs to the other framework, a switch between framework boundaries occurs. However, that switch only happens to the children of the component element. Consider a situation where we use an Angular 2 component from Angular 1 like this:

无论什么时候,只要我们用到了来自另一个框架的组件,就会发生框架边界的切换。然而,这种切换只会发生在组件元素的子节点上。 考虑一个场景,我们从Angular 1中像这样使用Angular 2的组件:

<ng2-component></ng2-component>

The DOM element <ng2-component> will remain to be an Angular 1 managed element, because it's defined in an Angular 1 template. That also means you can apply additional Angular 1 directives to it, but not Angular 2 directives. It is only in the template of the Ng2Component component where Angular 2 steps in. This same rule also applies when you use Angular 1 component directives from Angular 2.

此时,<ng2-component>这个DOM元素仍然由Angular 1管理,因为它是在Angular 1的模板中定义的。 这也意味着你可以往它上面添加别的Angular 1指令,却不能添加Angular 2的指令。 只有在Ng2Component组件的模板中才是Angular 2的天下。同样的规则也适用于在Angular 2中使用Angular 1组件型指令的情况。

Change Detection

变更检测

Change detection in Angular 1 is all about scope.$apply(). After every event that occurs, scope.$apply() gets called. This is done either automatically by the framework, or in some cases manually by our own code. It is the point in time when change detection occurs and data bindings get updated.

Angular 1中的变更检测全是关于scope.$apply()的。在每个事件发生之后,scope.$apply()就会被调用。 这或者由框架自动调用,或者在某些情况下由我们自己的代码手动调用。它是发生变更检测以及更新数据绑定的时间点。

In Angular 2 things are different. While change detection still occurs after every event, no one needs to call scope.$apply() for that to happen. This is because all Angular 2 code runs inside something called the Angular zone. Angular always knows when the code finishes, so it also knows when it should kick off change detection. The code itself doesn't have to call scope.$apply() or anything like it.

在Angular 2中,事情有点不一样。虽然变更检测仍然会在每一个事件之后发生,却不再需要每次调用scope.$apply()了。 这是因为所有Angular 2代码都运行在一个叫做Angular zone的地方。 Angular总是知道什么时候代码执行完了,也就知道了它什么时候应该触发变更检测。代码本身并不需要调用scope.$apply()或其它类似的东西。

In the case of hybrid applications, the UpgradeModule bridges the Angular 1 and Angular 2 approaches. Here's what happens:

在这种混合式应用的案例中,UpgradeModule在Angular 1的方法和Angular 2的方法之间建立了桥梁。发生了什么呢?

Change detection in a hybrid application

What this means in practice is that we do not need to call $apply() in our code, regardless of whether it is in Angular 1 on Angular 2. The UpgradeModule does it for us. We can still call $apply() so there is no need to remove such calls from existing code. Those calls just don't have any effect in a hybrid application.

在实践中,这意味着我们不用在自己的代码中调用$apply(),而不用管这段代码是在Angular 1还是Angular 2中。 UpgradeModule都替我们做了。我们仍然可以调用$apply(),也就是说我们不必从现有代码中移除此调用。 但是在混合式应用中,那些调用没有任何效果。

When we downgrade an Angular 2 component and then use it from Angular 1, the component's inputs will be watched using Angular 1 change detection. When those inputs change, the corresponding properties in the component are set. We can also hook into the changes by implementing the OnChanges interface in the component, just like we could if it hadn't been downgraded.

当我们降级一个Angular 2组件,然后把它用于Angular 1中时,组件的输入属性就会被Angular 1的变更检测体系监视起来。 当那些输入属性发生变化时,组件中相应的属性就会被设置。我们也能通过实现OnChanges 接口来挂钩到这些更改,就像它未被降级时一样。

Correspondingly, when we upgrade an Angular 1 component and use it from Angular 2, all the bindings defined for the component directive's scope (or bindToController) will be hooked into Angular 2 change detection. They will be treated as regular Angular 2 inputs and set onto the scope (or controller) when they change.

相应的,当我们把Angular 1的组件升级给Angular 2使用时,在这个组件型指令的scope(或bindToController)中定义的所有绑定, 都将被挂钩到Angular 2的变更检测体系中。它们将和标准的Angular 2输入属性被同等对待,并当它们发生变化时设置回scope(或控制器)上。

Using UpgradeModule with Angular 2 NgModules

通过Angular 2的NgModule来使用UpgradeModule

Both Angular 1 and Angular 2 have their own concept of modules to help organize an application into cohesive blocks of funcionality.

Angular 1还是Angular 2都有自己的模块概念,来帮你我们把应用组织成一些紧密相关的功能块。

Their details are quite different in architecture and implementation. In Angular 1, you add Angular assets to the angular.module property. In Angular 2, you create one or more classes adorned with an NgModule decorator that describes Angular assets in metadata. The differences blossom from there.

它们在架构和实现的细节上有着显著的不同。 在Angular 1中,我们会把Angular 1的资源添加到angular.module属性上。 在Angular 2中,我们会创建一个或多个带有NgModule装饰器的类,这些装饰器用来在元数据中描述Angular资源。差异主要来自这里。

In a hybrid application we run both versions of Angular at the same time. That means that we need at least one module each from both Angular 1 and Angular 2. We will import UpgradeModule inside our Angular 2 module , and then use it for bootstrapping ourAngular 1 module . Let's see how.

在混合式应用中,我们同时运行了两个版本的Angular。 这意味着我们至少需要Angular 1和Angular 2各提供一个模块。 当我们使用Angular 1的模块进行引导时,就得把Anuglar 2的模块传给UpgradeModule。我们来看看怎么做。

Learn more about Angular 2 modules at the NgModule guide.

要了解Angular 2模块的更多信息,请参阅Angular模块页。

Bootstrapping Hybrid Angular 1+2 Applications

引导Angular 1+2的混合式应用程序

The first step to upgrading an application using the UpgradeModule is always to bootstrap it as a hybrid that supports both Angular 1 and Angular 2.

使用UpgradeModule升级应用的第一步总是把它引导成一个同时支持Angular 1和Angular 2的混合式应用。

Pure Angular 1 applications can be bootstrapped in two ways: By using an ng-app directive somewhere on the HTML page, or by calling angular.bootstrap from JavaScript. In Angular 2, only the second method is possible - there is no ng-app in Angular 2. This is also the case for hybrid applications. Therefore, it is a good preliminary step to switch Angular 1 applications to use the JavaScript bootstrap method even before switching them to hybrid mode.

纯粹的Angular 1应用可以用两种方式引导:在HTML页面中的某处使用ng-app指令,或者从JavaScript中调用 angular.bootstrap。 在Angular 2中,只有第二种方法是可行的,因为它没有ng-app指令。在混合式应用中也同样只能用第二种方法。 所以,在将Angular 1应用切换到混合模式之前,把它改为用JavaScript引导的方式是一个不错的起点。

Say we have an ng-app driven bootstrap such as this one:

比如说我们有个由ng-app驱动的引导过程,就像这个:

<!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.5.3/angular.js"></script> <script src="app/1-ng-app/app.module.js"></script> </head> <body ng-app="heroApp" ng-strict-di> <div id="message" ng-controller="MainCtrl as mainCtrl"> {{ mainCtrl.message }} </div> </body> </html>

We can remove the ng-app and ng-strict-di directives from the HTML and instead switch to calling angular.bootstrap from JavaScript, which will result in the same thing:

我们可以从HTML中移除ng-appng-strict-di指令,改为从JavaScript中调用angular.bootstrap,它能达到同样效果:

angular.bootstrap(document.body, ['heroApp'], {strictDi: true});

Now introduce Angular 2 to the project. Inspired by instructions in the Setup, you can selectively copy in material from the QuickStart github repository.

现在,把Angular 2引入项目中。根据搭建本地开发环境中的指导,你可以有选择的从“快速起步”的Github仓库中拷贝素材进来。

Next, create an app.module.ts file and add the following NgModule class:

接下来,创建一个app.module.ts文件,并添加下列NgModule类:

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser'; import { UpgradeModule } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule ] }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

This bare minimum NgModule imports BrowserModule, the module every Angular browser-based app must have.

这个最小化的NgModule导入了BrowserModule,该模块是每个基于浏览器的Angular应用都必须具备的。

It also imports UpgradeModule from @angular/upgrade/static, and adds an override to prevent Angular 2 from bootstrapping itself in the form of the ngDoBootstrap empty class method.

它还从@angular/upgrade/static导入了UpgradeModule,并添加了一个ngDoBootstrap空的覆盖方法,防止 Angular 2启动它自身。

Now we bootstrap AppModule using platformBrowserDynamic's bootstrapModule method. Then we use dependency injection to get a hold of the UpgradeModule instance in AppModule, and use it to bootstrap our Angular 1 app. The upgrade.bootstrap method takes the exact same arguments as angular.bootstrap:

现在我们使用platformBrowserDynamicbootstrapModule方法启动AppModule。 接着我们使用依赖注入来获取AppModule中的一个UpgradeModule实例, 并使用它来启动我们的Angular 1应用。 upgrade.bootstrap方法接受与angular.bootstrap相同的参数。

import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic'; platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule).then(platformRef => { const upgrade = platformRef.injector.get(UpgradeModule) as UpgradeModule; upgrade.bootstrap(document.body, ['heroApp'], {strictDi: true}); });

Congratulations! You're running a hybrid Angular 1+2 application! The existing Angular 1 code works as before and you're ready to run Angular 2 code.

恭喜!我们就要开始运行Angular 1+2的混合式应用程序了!所有现存的Angular 1代码会像以前一样正常工作,但是我们现在也同样可以运行Angular 2代码了。

Using Angular 2 Components from Angular 1 Code

在Angular 1的代码中使用Angular 2的组件

Using an Angular 2 component from Angular 1 code

Once we're running a hybrid app, we can start the gradual process of upgrading code. One of the more common patterns for doing that is to use an Angular 2 component in an Angular 1 context. This could be a completely new component or one that was previously Angular 1 but has been rewritten for Angular 2.

一旦我们开始运行混合式应用,我们就可以开始逐渐升级代码了。做这件事的一种更常见的模式就是在Angular 1的上下文中使用Angular 2的组件。 该组件可能是全新的,也可能是把原本Angular 1的组件用Angular 2重写而成的。

Say we have a simple Angular 2 component that shows information about a hero:

假设我们有一个简单的用来显示英雄信息的Angular 2组件:

hero-detail.component.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; @Component({ selector: 'hero-detail', template: ` <h2>Windstorm details!</h2> <div><label>id: </label>1</div> ` }) export class HeroDetailComponent { }

If we want to use this component from Angular 1, we need to downgrade it using the downgradeComponent() method. What we get when we do that is an Angular 1 directive, which we can then register into our Angular 1 module:

如果我们想在Angular 1中使用这个组件,我们就得用downgradeComponent()方法把它降级。 如果我们这么做,就会得到一个Angular 1的指令,我们可以把它注册到Angular 1的模块中:

import { HeroDetailComponent } from './hero-detail.component'; /* . . . */ import { downgradeComponent } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; angular.module('heroApp', []) .directive( 'heroDetail', downgradeComponent({component: HeroDetailComponent}) as angular.IDirectiveFactory );

Because HeroDetailComponent is an Angular 2 component, we must also add it to the declarations in the AppModule.

由于HeroDetailComponent是一个Angular 2组件,所以我们必须同时把它加入AppModuledeclarations字段中。

And because this component is being used from the Angular 1 module, and is an entry point into our Angular 2 application, we also need to add it to the entryComponents for our Angular 2 module.

并且由于这个组件在Angular 1模块中使用,也是我们Angular 2应用的一个入口点,我们还需要 将它加入到Angular 2模块的entryComponents列表中。

import { HeroDetailComponent } from './hero-detail.component'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule ], declarations: [ HeroDetailComponent ], entryComponents: [ HeroDetailComponent ] }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

All Angular 2 components, directives and pipes must be declared in an NgModule.

所有Angular 2组件、指令和管道都必须声明在NgModule中。

The net resulit is an Angular 1 directive called heroDetail, that we can use like any other directive in our Angular 1 templates.

这里我们得到的是一个叫做heroDetail的Angular 1指令,我们可以像用其它指令一样把它用在Angular 1模板中。

<hero-detail></hero-detail>

Note that this Angular 1 is an element directive (restrict: 'E') called heroDetail. An Angular 1 element directive is matched based on its name. The selector metadata of the downgraded Angular 2 component is ignored.

注意,它在Angular 1中是一个名叫heroDetail的元素型指令(restrict: 'E')。 Angular 1的元素型指令是基于它的名字匹配的。 Angular 2组件中的selector元数据,在降级后的版本中会被忽略。

Most components are not quite this simple, of course. Many of them have inputs and outputs that connect them to the outside world. An Angular 2 hero detail component with inputs and outputs might look like this:

当然,大多数组件都不像这个这么简单。它们中很多都有输入属性和输出属性,来把它们连接到外部世界。 Angular 2的英雄详情组件带有像这样的输入属性与输出属性:

hero-detail.component.ts

import { Component, EventEmitter, Input, Output } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from '../hero'; @Component({ selector: 'hero-detail', template: ` <h2>{{hero.name}} details!</h2> <div><label>id: </label>{{hero.id}}</div> <button (click)="onDelete()">Delete</button> ` }) export class HeroDetailComponent { @Input() hero: Hero; @Output() deleted = new EventEmitter<Hero>(); onDelete() { this.deleted.emit(this.hero); } }

These inputs and outputs can be supplied from the Angular 1 template, and the downgradeComponent() method takes care of bridging them overvia the inputs and outputs arrays:

这些输入属性和输出属性的值来自于Angular 1的模板,而downgradeComponent()方法负责桥接它们:

import { HeroDetailComponent } from './hero-detail.component'; /* . . . */ angular.module('heroApp', []) .controller('MainController', MainController) .directive('heroDetail', downgradeComponent({ component: HeroDetailComponent, inputs: ['hero'], outputs: ['deleted'] }) as angular.IDirectiveFactory);
<div ng-controller="MainController as mainCtrl"> <hero-detail [hero]="mainCtrl.hero" (deleted)="mainCtrl.onDelete($event)"> </hero-detail> </div>

Note that even though we are in an Angular 1 template, we're using Angular 2 attribute syntax to bind the inputs and outputs. This is a requirement for downgraded components. The expressions themselves are still regular Angular 1 expressions.

注意,虽然我们正在Angular 1的模板中,但却在使用Angular 2的属性(Attribute)语法来绑定到输入属性与输出属性。 这是降级的组件本身要求的。而表达式本身仍然是标准的Angular 1表达式。

Use kebab-case for downgraded component attributes
在降级过的组件属性中使用中线命名法

There's one notable exception to the rule of using Angular 2 attribute syntax for downgraded components. It has to do with input or output names that consist of multiple words. In Angular 2 we would bind these attributes using camelCase:

为降级过的组件使用Angular 2的属性(Attribute)语法规则时有一个值得注意的例外。 它适用于由多个单词组成的输入或输出属性。在Angular 2中,我们要使用小驼峰命名法绑定这些属性:

[myHero]="hero"

But when using them from Angular 1 templates, we need to use kebab-case:

但是从Angular 1的模板中使用它们时,我们得使用中线命名法:

[my-hero]="hero"

The $event variable can be used in outputs to gain access to the object that was emitted. In this case it will be the Hero object, because that is what was passed to this.deleted.emit().

$event变量能被用在输出属性里,以访问这个事件所发出的对象。这个案例中它是Hero对象,因为this.deleted.emit()函数曾把它传了出来。

Since this is an Angular 1 template, we can still use other Angular 1 directives on the element, even though it has Angular 2 binding attributes on it. For example, we can easily make multiple copies of the component using ng-repeat:

由于这是一个Angular 1模板,虽然它已经有了Angular 2中绑定的属性(Attribute),我们仍可以在这个元素上使用其它Angular 1指令。 例如,我们可以用ng-repeat简单的制作该组件的多份拷贝:

<div ng-controller="MainController as mainCtrl"> <hero-detail [hero]="hero" (deleted)="mainCtrl.onDelete($event)" ng-repeat="hero in mainCtrl.heroes"> </hero-detail> </div>

Using Angular 1 Component Directives from Angular 2 Code

从Angular 2代码中使用Angular 1组件型指令

Using an Angular 1 component from Angular 2 code

So, we can write an Angular 2 component and then use it from Angular 1 code. This is very useful when we start our migration from lower-level components and work our way up. But in some cases it is more convenient to do things in the opposite order: To start with higher-level components and work our way down. This too can be done using the UpgradeModule. We can upgrade Angular 1 component directives and then use them from Angular 2.

现在,我们已经能在Angular 2中写一个组件,并把它用于Angular 1代码中了。 当我们从低级组件开始移植,并往上走时,这非常有用。但在另外一些情况下,从相反的方向进行移植会更加方便: 从高级组件开始,然后往下走。这也同样能用UpgradeModule完成。 我们可以升级Angular 1组件型指令,然后从Angular 2中用它们。

Not all kinds of Angular 1 directives can be upgraded. The directive really has to be a component directive, with the characteristics described in the preparation guide above. Our safest bet for ensuring compatibility is using the component API introduced in Angular 1.5.

不是所有种类的Angular 1指令都能升级。该指令必须是一个严格的组件型指令,具有上面的准备指南中描述的那些特征。 确保兼容性的最安全的方式是Angular 1.5中引入的组件API

A simple example of an upgradable component is one that just has a template and a controller:

可升级组件的简单例子是只有一个模板和一个控制器的指令:

hero-detail.component.ts

export const heroDetail = { template: ` <h2>Windstorm details!</h2> <div><label>id: </label>1</div> `, controller: function() { } };

We can upgrade this component to Angular 2 using the UpgradeComponent class. By creating a new Angular 2 directive that extends UpgradeComponent and doing a super call inside it 's constructor, we have a fully upgrade Angular 1 component to be used inside Angular 2 . All that is left is to add it to AppModule's declarations array.

我们可以使用UpgradeComponent方法来把这个组件升级到Angular 2。 具体方法是创建一个Angular 2指令,继承UpgradeComponent,在其构造函数中进行super调用, 这样我们就得到一个完全升级的Angular 1组件,并且可以Angular 2中使用。 剩下是工作就是把它加入到AppModuledeclarations`数组。

hero-detail.component.ts

import { Directive, ElementRef, Injector } from '@angular/core'; import { UpgradeComponent } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; @Directive({ selector: 'hero-detail' }) export class HeroDetailDirective extends UpgradeComponent { constructor(elementRef: ElementRef, injector: Injector) { super('heroDetail', elementRef, injector); } }

hero-detail.component.ts

@NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule ], declarations: [ HeroDetailDirective, /* . . . */ ] }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

Upgraded componentes are Angular 2 directives, instead of components, because Angular 2 is unaware that Angular 1 will create elements under it. As far as Angular 2 knows, the upgraded component is just a directive - a tag - and Angular 2 doesn't have to concern itself with it's children.

升级后的组件是Angular 2的指令,而不是组件,因为Angular 2不知道Angular 1将在它下面创建元素。 Angular 2所知道的是升级后的组件只是一个指令(一个标签),Angular 2不需要关心组件本身及其子元素。

An upgraded component may also have inputs and outputs, as defined by the scope/controller bindings of the original Angular 1 component directive. When we use the component from an Angular 2 template, we provide the inputs and outputs using Angular 2 template syntax, with the following rules:

升级后的组件也可能有输入属性和输出属性,它们是在原Angular 1组件型指令的scope/controller绑定中定义的。 当我们从Angular 2模板中使用该组件时,我们要使用Angular 2模板语法来提供这些输入属性和输出属性,但要遵循下列规则:

Binding definition

绑定定义

Template syntax

模板语法

Attribute binding

属性(Attribute)绑定

myAttribute: '@myAttribute'

<my-component myAttribute="value">

Expression binding

表达式绑定

myOutput: '&myOutput'

<my-component (myOutput)="action()">

One-way binding

单向绑定

myValue: '<myValue'

<my-component [myValue]="anExpression">

Two-way binding

双向绑定

myValue: '=myValue'

As a two-way binding: <my-component [(myValue)]="anExpression">. Since most Angular 1 two-way bindings actually only need a one-way binding in practice, <my-component [myValue]="anExpression"> is often enough.

用作输入:<my-component [myValue]="anExpression"> 或 用作双向绑定:<my-component [(myValue)]="anExpression"

As an example, say we have a hero detail Angular 1 component directive with one input and one output:

举个例子,假设我们在Angular 1中有一个表示“英雄详情”的组件型指令,它带有一个输入属性和一个输出属性:

hero-detail.component.ts

export const heroDetail = { bindings: { hero: '<', deleted: '&' }, template: ` <h2>{{$ctrl.hero.name}} details!</h2> <div><label>id: </label>{{$ctrl.hero.id}}</div> <button ng-click="$ctrl.onDelete()">Delete</button> `, controller: function() { this.onDelete = () => { this.deleted(this.hero); }; } };

We can upgrade this component to Angular 2, annotate inputs and outputs in the upgrade directive,and then provide the input and output using Angular 2 template syntax:

我们可以把这个组件升级到Angular 2,然后使用Angular 2的模板语法提供这个输入属性和输出属性:

hero-detail.component.ts

import { Directive, ElementRef, Injector, Input, Output, EventEmitter } from '@angular/core'; import { UpgradeComponent } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; import { Hero } from '../hero'; @Directive({ selector: 'hero-detail' }) export class HeroDetailDirective extends UpgradeComponent { @Input() hero: Hero; @Output() deleted: EventEmitter<Hero>; constructor(elementRef: ElementRef, injector: Injector) { super('heroDetail', elementRef, injector); } }

container.component.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from '../hero'; @Component({ selector: 'my-container', template: ` <h1>Tour of Heroes</h1> <hero-detail [hero]="hero" (deleted)="heroDeleted($event)"> </hero-detail> ` }) export class ContainerComponent { hero = new Hero(1, 'Windstorm'); heroDeleted(hero: Hero) { hero.name = 'Ex-' + hero.name; } }

Projecting Angular 1 Content into Angular 2 Components

把Angular 1的内容投影到Angular 2组件中

Projecting Angular 1 content into Angular 2

When we are using a downgraded Angular 2 component from an Angular 1 template, the need may arise to transclude some content into it. This is also possible. While there is no such thing as transclusion in Angular 2, there is a very similar concept called content projection. The UpgradeModule is able to make these two features interoperate.

如果我们在Angular 1模板中使用降级后的Angular 2组件时,可能会需要把模板中的一些内容投影进那个组件。 这也是可能的,虽然在Angular 2中并没有透传(transclude)这样的东西,但它有一个非常相似的概念,叫做内容投影UpgradeModule也能让这两个特性实现互操作。

Angular 2 components that support content projection make use of an <ng-content> tag within them. Here's an example of such a component:

Angular 2的组件通过使用<ng-content>标签来支持内容投影。下面是这类组件的一个例子:

hero-detail.component.ts

import { Component, Input } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from '../hero'; @Component({ selector: 'hero-detail', template: ` <h2>{{hero.name}}</h2> <div> <ng-content></ng-content> </div> ` }) export class HeroDetailComponent { @Input() hero: Hero; }

When using the component from Angular 1, we can supply contents for it. Just like they would be transcluded in Angular 1, they get projected to the location of the <ng-content> tag in Angular 2:

当从Angular 1中使用该组件时,我们可以为它提供内容。正如它们将在Angular 1中被透传一样, 它们也在Angular 2中被投影到了<ng-content>标签所在的位置:

<div ng-controller="MainController as mainCtrl"> <hero-detail [hero]="mainCtrl.hero"> <!-- Everything here will get projected --> <p>{{mainCtrl.hero.description}}</p> </hero-detail> </div>

When Angular 1 content gets projected inside an Angular 2 component, it still remains in "Angular 1 land" and is managed by the Angular 1 framework.

当Angular 1的内容被投影到Angular 2组件中时,它仍然留在“Angular 1王国”中,并被Angular 1框架管理着。

Transcluding Angular 2 Content into Angular 1 Component Directives

把Angular 2的内容透传进Angular 1的组件型指令

Projecting Angular 2 content into Angular 1

Just like we can project Angular 1 content into Angular 2 components, we can transclude Angular 2 content into Angular 1 components, whenever we are using upgraded versions from them.

就像我们能把Angular 1的内容投影进Angular 2组件一样,我们也能把Angular 2的内容透传进Angular 1的组件, 但不管怎样,我们都要使用它们升级过的版本。

When an Angular 1 component directive supports transclusion, it may use the ng-transclude directive in its template to mark the transclusion point:

如果一个Angular 1组件型指令支持透传,它就会在自己的模板中使用ng-transclude指令标记出透传到的位置:

hero-detail.component.ts

export const heroDetail = { bindings: { hero: '=' }, template: ` <h2>{{$ctrl.hero.name}}</h2> <div> <ng-transclude></ng-transclude> </div> ` };

The directive also needs to have the transclude: true option enabled. It is on by default for component directives defined with the 1.5 component API.

该指令还需要启用一个transclude: true选项。当用Angular 1.5中的组件API定义组件型指令时,该选项默认是开启的。

If we upgrade this component and use it from Angular 2, we can populate the component tag with contents that will then get transcluded:

如果我们升级这个组件,并把它用在Angular 2中,我们就能把准备透传的内容放进这个组件的标签中。

container.component.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from '../hero'; @Component({ selector: 'my-container', template: ` <hero-detail [hero]="hero"> <!-- Everything here will get transcluded --> <p>{{hero.description}}</p> </hero-detail> ` }) export class ContainerComponent { hero = new Hero(1, 'Windstorm', 'Specific powers of controlling winds'); }

Making Angular 1 Dependencies Injectable to Angular 2

让Angular 1中的依赖可被注入到Angular 2

When running a hybrid app, we may bump into situations where we need to have some Angular 1 dependencies to be injected to Angular 2 code. This may be because we have some business logic still in Angular 1 services, or because we need some of Angular 1's built-in services like $location or $timeout.

当运行一个混合式应用时,我们可能会遇到这种情况:我们需要把某些Angular 1的依赖注入到Angular 2代码中。 这可能是因为某些业务逻辑仍然在Angular 1服务中,或者需要某些Angular 1的内置服务,比如$location$timeout

In these situations, it is possible to upgrade an Angular 1 provider to Angular 2. This makes it possible to then inject it somewhere in Angular 2 code. For example, we might have a service called HeroesService in Angular 1:

在这些情况下,把一个Angular 1提供商升级到Angular 2也是有可能的。这就让它将来有可能被注入到Angular 2代码中的某些地方。 比如,我们可能在Angular 1中有一个名叫HeroesService的服务:

heroes.service.ts

import { Hero } from '../hero'; export class HeroesService { get() { return [ new Hero(1, 'Windstorm'), new Hero(2, 'Spiderman') ]; } }

We can upgrade the service using a Angular 2 Factory provider that requests the service from the Angular 1 $injector. The name of the Angular 2 dependency is up to you:

我们可以Angular 2的工厂提供商(factory provider)升级该服务, 它从Angular 1的$injector请求服务。Angular 2依赖的名称由你确定:

app.module.ts

@NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule ], providers: [{ provide: 'heroes', useFactory: (i: any) => i.get('heroes'), deps: ['$injector'] }], /* . . . */ }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

We can then inject it in Angular 2 using a string token:

然后我们可以一个字符串型令牌,把它注入到Angular 2中:

hero-detail.component.ts

import { Component, Inject } from '@angular/core'; import { HeroesService } from './heroes.service'; import { Hero } from '../hero'; @Component({ selector: 'hero-detail', template: ` <h2>{{hero.id}}: {{hero.name}}</h2> ` }) export class HeroDetailComponent { hero: Hero; constructor(@Inject('heroes') heroes: HeroesService) { this.hero = heroes.get()[0]; } }

In this example we upgraded a service class, which has the added benefit that we can use a TypeScript type annotation when we inject it. While it doesn't affect how the dependency is handled, it enables the benefits of static type checking. This is not required though, and any Angular 1 service, factory, or provider can be upgraded.

在这个例子中,我们升级了服务类。当我们注入它时,我们可以使用TypeScript类型注解来获得这些额外的好处。 它没有影响该依赖的处理过程,同时还得到了启用静态类型检查的好处。 任何Angular 1中的服务、工厂和提供商都能被升级 —— 尽管这不是必须的。

Making Angular 2 Dependencies Injectable to Angular 1

让Angular 2的依赖能被注入到Angular 1中

In addition to upgrading Angular 1 dependencies, we can also downgrade Angular 2 dependencies, so that we can use them from Angular 1. This can be useful when we start migrating services to Angular 2 or creating new services in Angular 2 while we still have components written in Angular 1.

除了能升级Angular 1依赖之外,我们还能降级Angular 2的依赖,以便我们能在Angular 1中使用它们。 当我们已经开始把服务移植到Angular 2或在Angular 2中创建新服务,但同时还有一些用Angular 1写成的组件时,这会非常有用。

For example, we might have an Angular 2 service called Heroes:

例如,我们可能有一个Angular 2的Heroes服务:

heroes.ts

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from '../hero'; @Injectable() export class Heroes { get() { return [ new Hero(1, 'Windstorm'), new Hero(2, 'Spiderman') ]; } }

Again, as with Angular 2 components, register the provider with the NgModule by adding it to the module's providers list.

仿照Angular 2组件,我们通过把该提供商加入NgModuleproviders列表中来注册它。

app.module.ts

import { Heroes } from './heroes'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule ], providers: [ Heroes ] }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

Now wrap the Angular 2 Heroes in an Angular 1 factory function using downgradeInjectable(). and plug the factory into an Angular 1 module. The name of the Angular 1 dependency is up to you:

现在,我们使用upgradeAdapter.downgradeNg2Provider()来把Angular 2的Heroes包装成Angular 1的工厂函数,并把这个工厂注册进Angular 1的模块中。 依赖在Angular 1中的名字你可以自己定:

app.module.ts

import { downgradeInjectable } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; angular.module('heroApp', []) .factory('heroes', downgradeInjectable(Heroes)) .component('heroDetail', heroDetailComponent);

After this, the service is injectable anywhere in our Angular 1 code:

此后,该服务就能被注入到Angular 1代码中的任何地方了:

hero-detail.component.ts

export const heroDetailComponent = { template: ` <h2>{{$ctrl.hero.id}}: {{$ctrl.hero.name}}</h2> `, controller: ['heroes', function(heroes: Heroes) { this.hero = heroes.get()[0]; }] };

PhoneCat Upgrade Tutorial

PhoneCat升级教程

In this section and we will look at a complete example of preparing and upgrading an application using the upgrade module. The app we're going to work on is Angular PhoneCat from the original Angular 1 tutorial, which is where many of us began our Angular adventures. Now we'll see how to bring that application to the brave new world of Angular 2.

在本节和下节中,我们将看一个完整的例子,它使用upgrade模块准备和升级了一个应用程序。 该应用就是来自原Angular 1教程中的Angular PhoneCat。 那是我们很多人当初开始Angular探险之旅的起点。 现在,我们来看看如何把该应用带入Angular 2的美丽新世界。

During the process we'll learn how to apply the steps outlined in the preparation guide in practice: We'll align the application with Angular 2 and also take TypeScript into use.

这期间,我们将学到如何在实践中应用准备指南中列出的那些重点步骤: 我们先让该应用向Angular 2看齐,然后为它引入SystemJS模块加载器和TypeScript。

To follow along with the tutorial, clone the angular-phonecat repository and apply the steps as we go.

要跟随本教程,请先把angular-phonecat仓库克隆到本地,并跟我们一起应用这些步骤。

In terms of project structure, this is where our work begins:

在项目结构方面,我们工作的起点是这样的:

angular-phonecat
bower.json
karma.conf.js
package.json
app
core
checkmark
checkmark.filter.js
checkmark.filter.spec.js
phone
phone.module.js
phone.service.js
phone.service.spec.js
core.module.js
phone-detail
phone-detail.component.js
phone-detail.component.spec.js
phone-detail.module.js
phone-detail.template.html
phone-list
phone-list.component.js
phone-list.component.spec.js
phone-list.module.js
phone-list.template.html
img
...
phones
...
app.animations.js
app.config.js
app.css
app.module.js
index.html
e2e-tests
protractor-conf.js
scenarios.js

This is actually a pretty good starting point. The code uses the Angular 1.5 component API and the organization follows the Angular 1 Style Guide, which is an important preparation step before a successful upgrade.

这确实是一个很好地起点。特别是,该结构遵循了Angular 1 风格指南, 要想成功升级,这是一个很重要的准备步骤

Switching to TypeScript

切换到TypeScript

Since we're going to be writing our Angular 2 code in TypeScript, it makes sense to bring in the TypeScript compiler even before we begin upgrading.

因为我们将使用TypeScript编写Angular 2的代码,所以在开始升级之前,我们把TypeScript的编译器设置好是很合理的。

We will also start to gradually phase out the Bower package manager in favor of NPM. We'll install all new dependencies using NPM, and will eventually be able to remove Bower from the project.

我们还将开始逐步淘汰Bower包管理器,换成我们更喜欢的NPM。后面我们将使用NPM来安装新的依赖包,并最终从项目中移除Bower。

Let's begin by installing TypeScript to the project.

让我们先把TypeScript包安装到项目中。

npm i typescript --save-dev

Let's also add run scripts for the tsc TypeScript compiler to package.json:

我们还要把用来运行TypeScript编译器tsctypings工具的脚本添加到package.json中:

package.json

{ "scripts": { "tsc": "tsc", "tsc:w": "tsc -w" } }

We can now install type definitions for the existing libraries that we're using but that don't come with prepackaged types: Angular 1 and the Jasmine unit test framework.

现在我们可以使用typings工具来安装Angular 1和Jasmine单元测试框架的类型定义文件。

npm install @types/jasmine @types/angular @types/angular-animate @types/angular-cookies @types/angular-mocks @types/angular-resource @types/angular-route @types/angular-sanitize --save-dev

We should also configure the TypeScript compiler so that it can understand our project. We'll add a tsconfig.json file to the project directory, just like we do in the documentation setup. It instructs the TypeScript compiler how to interpret our source files.

我们还应该配置TypeScript编译器,以便它能理解我们的项目结构。我们要往项目目录下添加一个tsconfig.json文件, 就像在搭建本地开发环境中做过的那样。它将告诉TypeScript编译器,该如何编译我们的源文件。

tsconfig.json

{ "compilerOptions": { "target": "es5", "module": "commonjs", "moduleResolution": "node", "sourceMap": true, "emitDecoratorMetadata": true, "experimentalDecorators": true, "removeComments": false, "noImplicitAny": false, "suppressImplicitAnyIndexErrors": true } }

We are telling the TypeScript compiler to turn our TypeScript files to ES5 code bundled into CommonJS modules.

我们告诉TypeScript编译器,把TypeScript文件转换成ES5代码,并打包进CommonJS模块中。

We can now launch the TypeScript compiler from the command line. It will watch our .ts source files and compile them to JavaScript on the fly. Those compiled .js files are then loaded into the browser by SystemJS. This is a process we'll want to have continuously running in the background as we go along.

我们现在可以从命令行启动TypeScript编译器。它将监控.ts源码文件,并随时把它们编译成JavaScript。 然后这些编译出的.js文件被SystemJS加载到浏览器中。当我们继续往前走的时候,这个过程将在后台持续运行。

npm run tsc:w

The next thing we'll do is convert our JavaScript files to TypeScript. Since TypeScript is a superset of ECMAScript 2015, which in turn is a superset of ECMAScript 5, we can simply switch the file extensions from .js to .ts and everything will work just like it did before. As the TypeScript compiler runs, it emits the corresponding .js file for every .ts file and the compiled JavaScript is what actually gets executed. If you start the project HTTP server with npm start, you should see the fully functional application in your browser.

我们要做的下一件事是把JavaScript文件转换成TypeScript文件。 由于TypeScript是ECMAScript 2015的一个超集,而ES2015又是ECMAScript 5的超集,所以我们可以简单的把文件的扩展名从.js换成.ts, 它们还是会像以前一样工作。由于TypeScript编译器仍在运行,它会为每一个.ts文件生成对应的.js文件,而真正运行的是编译后的.js文件。 如果你用npm start开启了本项目的HTTP服务器,你会在浏览器中看到一个功能完好的应用。

Now that we have TypeScript though, we can start benefiting from some of its features. There's a lot of value the language can provide to Angular 1 applications.

有了TypeScript,我们就可以从它的一些特性中获益了。此语言可以为Angular 1应用提供很多价值。

For one thing, TypeScript is a superset of ES2015. Any app that has previously been written in ES5 - like the PhoneCat example has - can with TypeScript start incorporating all of the JavaScript features that are new to ES2015. These include things like lets and consts, arrow functions, default function parameters, and destructuring assignments.

首先,TypeScript是一个ES2015的超集。任何以前用ES5写的程序(就像PhoneCat范例)都可以开始通过TypeScript 纳入那些添加到ES2015中的新特性。 这包括letconst、箭头函数、函数默认参数以及解构(destructure)赋值。

Another thing we can do is start adding type safety to our code. This has actually partially already happened because of the Angular 1 typings we installed. TypeScript are checking that we are calling Angular 1 APIs correctly when we do things like register components to Angular modules.

我们能做的另一件事就是把类型安全添加到代码中。这实际上已经部分完成了,因为我们已经安装了Angular 1的类型定义。 当我们正确调用Angular 1的API时,TypeScript会帮我们检查它 —— 比如往Angular模块中注册组件。

But we can also start adding type annotations for our own code to get even more out of TypeScript's type system. For instance, we can annotate the checkmark filter so that it explicitly expects booleans as arguments. This makes it clearer what the filter is supposed to do.

我们还能开始把类型注解添加到自己的代码中,来从TypeScript的类型系统中获得更多帮助。 比如,我们可以给checkmark过滤器加上注解,表明它期待一个boolean类型的参数。 这可以更清楚的表明此过滤器打算做什么

app/core/checkmark/checkmark.filter.ts

angular. module('core'). filter('checkmark', function() { return function(input: boolean) { return input ? '\u2713' : '\u2718'; }; });

In the Phone service we can explicitly annotate the $resource service dependency as an angular.resource.IResourceService - a type defined by the Angular 1 typings.

Phone服务中,我们可以明确的把$resource服务声明为angular.resource.IResourceService,一个Angular 1类型定义提供的类型。

app/core/phone/phone.service.ts

angular. module('core.phone'). factory('Phone', ['$resource', function($resource: angular.resource.IResourceService) { return $resource('phones/:phoneId.json', {}, { query: { method: 'GET', params: {phoneId: 'phones'}, isArray: true } }); } ]);

We can apply the same trick to the application's route configuration file in app.config.ts, where we are using the location and route services. By annotating them accordingly TypeScript can verify we're calling their APIs with the correct kinds of arguments.

我们可以在应用的路由配置中使用同样的技巧,那里我们用到了location和route服务。 一旦给它们提供了类型信息,TypeScript就能检查我们是否在用类型的正确参数来调用它们了。

app/app.config.ts

angular. module('phonecatApp'). config(['$locationProvider', '$routeProvider', function config($locationProvider: angular.ILocationProvider, $routeProvider: angular.route.IRouteProvider) { $locationProvider.hashPrefix('!'); $routeProvider. when('/phones', { template: '<phone-list></phone-list>' }). when('/phones/:phoneId', { template: '<phone-detail></phone-detail>' }). otherwise('/phones'); } ]);

The Angular 1.x type definitions we installed are not officially maintained by the Angular team, but are quite comprehensive. It is possible to make an Angular 1.x application fully type-annotated with the help of these definitions.

我们用typings工具安装的这个Angular 1.x类型定义文件 并不是由Angular开发组维护的,但它也已经足够全面了。借助这些类型定义的帮助,它可以为Angular 1.x程序加上全面的类型注解。

If this is something we wanted to do, it would be a good idea to enable the noImplicitAny configuration option in tsconfig.json. This would cause the TypeScript compiler to display a warning when there's any code that does not yet have type annotations. We could use it as a guide to inform us about how close we are to having a fully annotated project.

如果我们想这么做,那么在tsconfig.json中启用noImplicitAny配置项就是一个好主意。 这样,如果遇到什么还没有类型注解的代码,TypeScript编译器就会显示一个警告。 我们可以用它作为指南,告诉我们现在与一个完全类型化的项目距离还有多远。

Another TypeScript feature we can make use of is classes. In particular, we can turn our component controllers into classes. That way they'll be a step closer to becoming Angular 2 component classes, which will make our life easier once we do the upgrade.

我们能用的另一个TypeScript特性是。具体来讲,我们可以把控制器转换成类。 这种方式下,我们离成为Angular 2组件类就又近了一步,它会令我们的升级之路变得更简单。

Angular 1 expects controllers to be constructor functions. That's exactly what ES2015/TypeScript classes are under the hood, so that means we can just plug in a class as a component controller and Angular 1 will happily use it.

Angular 1期望控制器是一个构造函数。这实际上就是ES2015/TypeScript中的类, 这也就意味着只要我们把一个类注册为组件控制器,Angular 1就会愉快的使用它。

Here's what our new class for the phone list component controller looks like:

新的“电话列表(phone list)”组件控制器类看起来是这样的:

app/phone-list/phone-list.component.ts

class PhoneListController { phones: any[]; orderProp: string; query: string; static $inject = ['Phone']; constructor(Phone: any) { this.phones = Phone.query(); this.orderProp = 'age'; } } angular. module('phoneList'). component('phoneList', { templateUrl: 'phone-list/phone-list.template.html', controller: PhoneListController });

What was previously done in the controller function is now done in the class constructor function. The dependency injection annotations are attached to the class using a static property $inject. At runtime this becomes the PhoneListController.$inject property.

以前在控制器函数中实现的一切,现在都改由类的构造函数来实现了。类型注入注解通过静态属性$inject 被附加到了类上。在运行时,它们变成了PhoneListController.$inject

The class additionally declares three members: The array of phones, the name of the current sort key, and the search query. These are all things we have already been attaching to the controller but that weren't explicitly declared anywhere. The last one of these isn't actually used in the TypeScript code since it's only referred to in the template, but for the sake of clarity we want to define all the members our controller will have.

该类还声明了另外三个成员:电话列表、当前排序键的名字和搜索条件。 这些东西我们以前就加到了控制器上,只是从来没有在任何地方显式定义过它们。最后一个成员从未真正在TypeScript代码中用过, 因为它只是在模板中被引用过。但为了清晰起见,我们还是应该定义出此控制器应有的所有成员。

In the Phone detail controller we'll have two members: One for the phone that the user is looking at and another for the URL of the currently displayed image:

在电话详情控制器中,我们有两个成员:一个是用户正在查看的电话,另一个是正在显示的图像:

app/phone-detail/phone-detail.component.ts

class PhoneDetailController { phone: any; mainImageUrl: string; static $inject = ['$routeParams', 'Phone']; constructor($routeParams: angular.route.IRouteParamsService, Phone: any) { let phoneId = $routeParams['phoneId']; this.phone = Phone.get({phoneId}, (phone: any) => { this.setImage(phone.images[0]); }); } setImage(imageUrl: string) { this.mainImageUrl = imageUrl; } } angular. module('phoneDetail'). component('phoneDetail', { templateUrl: 'phone-detail/phone-detail.template.html', controller: PhoneDetailController });

This makes our controller code look a lot more like Angular 2 already. We're all set to actually introduce Angular 2 into the project.

这已经让我们的控制器代码看起来更像Angular 2了。我们的准备工作做好了,可以引进Angular 2到项目中了。

If we had any Angular 1 services in the project, those would also be a good candidate for converting to classes, since like controllers, they're also constructor functions. But we only have the Phone factory in this project, and that's a bit special since it's an ngResource factory. So we won't be doing anything to it in the preparation stage. We'll instead turn it directly into an Angular 2 service.

如果项目中有任何Angular 1的服务,它们也是转换成类的优秀候选人,像控制器一样,它们也是构造函数。 但是在本项目中,我们只有一个Phone工厂,这有点特别,因为它是一个ngResource工厂。 所以我们不会在准备阶段中处理它,而是在下一节中直接把它转换成Angular 2服务。

Installing Angular 2

安装Angular 2

Having completed our preparation work, let's get going with the Angular 2 upgrade of PhoneCat. We'll do this incrementally with the help of the upgrade module that comes with Angular 2. By the time we're done, we'll be able to remove Angular 1 from the project completely, but the key is to do this piece by piece without breaking the application.

我们已经完成了准备工作,接下来就开始把PhoneCat升级到Angular 2。 我们将在Angular 2升级模块的帮助下增量式的完成此项工作。 等我们完成的那一刻,就能把Angular 1从项目中完全移除了,但其中的关键是在不破坏此程序的前提下一小块一小块的完成它。

The project also contains some animations, which we are not yet upgrading in this version of the guide. This will change in a later release.

该项目还包含一些动画,在此指南的当前版本我们先不升级它,等到后面的发行版再改。

Let's install Angular 2 into the project, along with the SystemJS module loader. Take a look at the results of the Setup instructions and get the following configurations from there:

我们来使用SystemJS模块加载器把Angular 2安装到项目中。 看看搭建本地开发环境中的指南,并从那里获得如下配置:

Once these are done, run:

这些完成之后,就运行:

npm install

We can soon load Angular 2 dependencies into the application via index.html, but first we need to do some directory path adjustments. This is because we're going to need to load files from node_modules and the project root, whereas so far in this project everything has been loaded from the /app directory.

我们可以通过index.html来把Angular 2的依赖快速加载到应用中, 但首先,我们得做一些目录结构调整。这是因为我们正准备从node_modules中加载文件,然而目前项目中的每一个文件都是从/app目录下加载的。

Move the app/index.html file to the project root directory. Then change the development server root path in package.json to also point to the project root instead of app:

app/index.html移入项目的根目录,然后把package.json中的开发服务器根目录也指向项目的根目录,而不再是app目录:

package.json (start script)

{ "scripts": { "start": "http-server -a localhost -p 8000 -c-1 ./" } }

Now we're able to serve everything from the project root to the web browser. But we do not want to have to change all the image and data paths used in the application code to match our development setup. For that reason, we'll add a <base> tag to index.html, which will cause relative URLs to be resolved back to the /app directory:

现在,我们能把项目根目录下的每一样东西发给浏览器了。但我们不想为了适应开发环境中的设置,被迫修改应用代码中用到的所有图片和数据的路径。因此,我们往index.html中添加一个<base>标签,它将导致各种相对路径被解析回/app目录:

index.html

<base href="/app/">

Now we can load Angular 2 via SystemJS. We'll add the Angular 2 polyfills and the SystemJS config to the end of the <head> section, and then we'll use System.import to load the actual application:

现在我们可以通过SystemJS加载Angular 2了。我们将把Angular 2的填充库(polyfills) 和SystemJS的配置加到<head>区的末尾,然后,我们就用System.import来加载实际的应用:

index.html

<script src="/node_modules/core-js/client/shim.min.js"></script> <script src="/node_modules/zone.js/dist/zone.js"></script> <script src="/node_modules/reflect-metadata/Reflect.js"></script> <script src="/node_modules/systemjs/dist/system.src.js"></script> <script src="/systemjs.config.js"></script> <script> System.import('/app'); </script>

We also need to make a couple of adjustments to the systemjs.config.js file installed during setup. We want to point the browser to the project root when loading things through SystemJS, instead of using the <base> URL:

在我们从搭建本地开发环境中拿来的systemjs.config.js文件中,我们还需要做一些调整,以适应我们的项目结构。 在使用SystemJS而不是<base> URL加载时,我们需要把浏览器指向项目的根目录。

systemjs.config.js

System.config({ paths: { // paths serve as alias 'npm:': '/node_modules/' }, map: { app: '/app', /* . . . */ },

Creating the AppModule

创建AppModule

Now create the root NgModule class called AppModule. There is already a file named app.module.ts that holds the Angular 1 module. Rename it to app.module.ng1.ts and update the corresponding script name in the index.html as well. The file contents remain:

现在,创建一个名叫AppModule的根NgModule类。 我们已经有了一个名叫app.module.ts的文件,其中存放着Angular 1的模块。 把它改名为app.module.ng1.ts,同时也要在index.html中更新对应的脚本名。 文件的内容保留:

app.module.ng1.ts

'use strict'; // Define the `phonecatApp` Angular 1 module angular.module('phonecatApp', [ 'ngAnimate', 'ngRoute', 'core', 'phoneDetail', 'phoneList', ]);

Now create a new app.module.ts with the minimum NgModule class:

然后创建一个新的app.module.ts文件,其中是一个最小化的NgModule类:

app.module.ts

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, ], }) export class AppModule { }

Bootstrapping a hybrid 1+2 PhoneCat

引导PhoneCat的1+2混合式应用

What we'll do next is bootstrap the application as a hybrid application that supports both Angular 1 and Angular 2 components. Once we've done that we can start converting the individual pieces to Angular 2.

接下来,我们把该应用程序引导改装为一个同时支持Angular 1和Angular 2的混合式应用。 然后,就能开始把这些不可分割的小块转换到Angular 2了。

To bootstrap a hybrid application, we first need to import UpgradeModule in our AppModule, and override it's bootstrap method:

要引导一个混合式应用程序, 我们首先需要在AppModule中导入`UpgradeModule,并覆盖它的启动方法:

app/app.module.ts

import { UpgradeModule } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule, ], }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

Our application is currently bootstrapped using the Angular 1 ng-app directive attached to the <html> element of the host page. This will no longer work with Angular 2. We should switch to a JavaScript-driven bootstrap instead.

我们的应用现在是使用宿主页面中附加到<html>元素上的ng-app指令引导的。 但在Angular 2中,它不再工作了。我们得切换成JavaScript驱动的引导方式。

So, remove the ng-app attribute from index.html, and instead boostrap via app/main.ts. This file has been configured as the application entrypoint in systemjs.config.js, so it is already being loaded by the browser.

所以,从index.html中移除ng-app属性,并把这些加载main.ts中。 在systemjs.config.js中已经将此文件配置为应用的入口,所以它已被浏览器所加载。

import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic'; import { UpgradeModule } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; import { AppModule } from './app.module'; platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule).then(platformRef => { const upgrade = platformRef.injector.get(UpgradeModule) as UpgradeModule; upgrade.bootstrap(document.documentElement, ['phonecatApp']); });

The arguments used here are the root element of the application (which is the same element we had ng-app on earlier), and the Angular 1.x modules that we want to load. Since we're bootstrapping the app through an UpgradeModule, we're actually now running the app as a hybrid Angular 1+2 app.

这里使用的参数是应用的根元素(也就是以前我们放ng-app的元素),和我们准备加载的Angular 1.x模块。 由于我们是通过UpgradeAdapter引导应用的,所以实际在运行的应用实际上是一个Angular 1+2的混合体。

This means we are now running both Angular 1 and 2 at the same time. That's pretty exciting! We're not running any actual Angular 2 components yet though, so let's do that next.

我们现在同时运行着Angular 1和Angular 2。漂亮!不过我们还没有运行什么实际的Angular 2组件,接下来我们就做这件事。

Why declare angular as angular.IAngularStatic?

为何要声明angularangular.IAngularStatic

@types/angular is declared as a UMD module, and due to the way UMD typings work, once you have an ES6 import statement in a file all UMD typed modules must also be imported via import statements instead of being globally available.

@types/angular声明为UMD模块,根据UMD类型 的工作方式,一旦你在文件中有一条ES6的import语句,所有的UMD类型化的模型必须都通过import语句导入, 而是不是全局可用。

Angular 1 is currently loaded by a script tag in index.html, which means that the whole app has access to it as a global and uses the same instance of the angular variable. If we used import * as angular from 'angular' instead we would also need to overhaul how we load every file in our Angular 1 app to use ES6 modules in order to ensure Angular 1 was being loaded correctly.

Angular 1是日前是通过index.html中的script标签加载,这意味着整个应用是作为一个全局变量进行访问的, 使用同一个angular变量的实例。 但如果我们使用import * as angular from 'angular',我还需要彻底修改Angular 1应用中加载每个文件的方式, 确保Angular 1应用被正确加载。

This is a considerable effort and it often isn't worth it, especially since we are in the process of moving our our to Angular 2 already. Instead we declare angular as angular.IAngularStatic to indicate it is a global variable and still have full typing support.

这需要相当多的努力,通常也不值得去做,特别是我们的应用正在朝着Angular 2前进。 但如果我们声明angularangular.IAngularStatic,指明它是一个全局变量, 仍然可以获得全面的类型支持。

Upgrading the Phone service

升级Phone服务

The first piece we'll port over to Angular 2 is the Phone service, which resides in app/core/phone/phone.service.ts and makes it possible for components to load phone information from the server. Right now it's implemented with ngResource and we're using it for two things:

我们要移植到Angular 2的第一块是Phone工厂(位于app/js/core/phones.factory.ts), 并且让它能帮助控制器从服务器上加载电话信息。目前,它是用ngResource实现的,我们用它做两件事:

We can replace this implementation with an Angular 2 service class, while keeping our controllers in Angular 1 land.

我们可以用Angular 2的服务类来替换这个实现,而把控制器继续留在Angular 1的地盘上。

In the new version, we import the Angular 2 HTTP module and call its Http service instead of ngResource.

在这个新版本中,我们导入了Angular 2的HTTP模块,并且用它的Http服务替换掉NgResource

Re-open the app.module.ts file, import and add HttpModule to the imports array of the AppModule:

再次打开app.module.ts文件,导入并把HttpModule添加到AppModuleimports数组中:

app.module.ts

import { HttpModule } from '@angular/http'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule, HttpModule, ], }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

Now we're ready to upgrade the Phone service itself. We replace the ngResource-based service in phone.service.ts with a TypeScript class decorated as @Injectable:

现在,我们已经准备好了升级Phones服务本身。我们将为phone.service.ts文件中基于ngResource的服务加上@Injectable装饰器:

app/core/phone/phone.service.ts (skeleton)

@Injectable() export class Phone { /* . . . */ }

The @Injectable decorator will attach some dependency injection metadata to the class, letting Angular 2 know about its dependencies. As described by our Dependency Injection Guide, this is a marker decorator we need to use for classes that have no other Angular 2 decorators but still need to have their dependencies injected.

@Injectable装饰器将把一些依赖注入相关的元数据附加到该类上,让Angular 2知道它的依赖信息。 就像在依赖注入指南中描述过的那样, 这是一个标记装饰器,我们要把它用在那些没有其它Angular 2装饰器,并且自己有依赖注入的类上。

In its constructor the class expects to get the Http service. It will be injected to it and it is stored as a private field. The service is then used in the two instance methods, one of which loads the list of all phones, and the other the details of a particular phone:

在它的构造函数中,该类期待一个Http服务。Http服务将被注入进来并存入一个私有字段。 然后该服务在两个实例方法中被使用到,一个加载所有电话的列表,另一个加载一台指定电话的详情:

@Injectable() export class Phone { constructor(private http: Http) { } query(): Observable<PhoneData[]> { return this.http.get(`phones/phones.json`) .map((res: Response) => res.json()); } get(id: string): Observable<PhoneData> { return this.http.get(`phones/${id}.json`) .map((res: Response) => res.json()); } }

The methods now return Observables of type PhoneData and PhoneData[]. This is a type we don't have yet, so let's add a simple interface for it:

该方法现在返回一个Phone类型或Phone[]类型的可观察对象(Observable)。 这是一个我们从未用过的类型,因此我们得为它新增一个简单的接口:

app/core/phone/phone.service.ts (interface)

export interface PhoneData { name: string; snippet: string; images: string[]; }

@angular/upgrade/static has a downgradeInjectable method for the purpose of making Angular 2 services available to Angular 1 code. Use it to plug in the Phone service:

@angular/upgrade/static有一个downgradeInjectable方法,可以使Angular 2服务在Angular 1的代码中可用。 使用它来插入Phone服务:

app/core/phone/phone.service.ts (downgrade)

declare var angular: angular.IAngularStatic; import { downgradeInjectable } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; /* . . . */ @Injectable() export class Phone { /* . . . */ } angular.module('core.phone') .factory('phone', downgradeInjectable(Phone));

Here's the full, final code for the service:

最终,该类的全部代码如下:

app/core/phone/phone.service.ts

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'; import { Http, Response } from '@angular/http'; import { Observable } from 'rxjs/Rx'; declare var angular: angular.IAngularStatic; import { downgradeInjectable } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; import 'rxjs/add/operator/map'; export interface PhoneData { name: string; snippet: string; images: string[]; } @Injectable() export class Phone { constructor(private http: Http) { } query(): Observable<PhoneData[]> { return this.http.get(`phones/phones.json`) .map((res: Response) => res.json()); } get(id: string): Observable<PhoneData> { return this.http.get(`phones/${id}.json`) .map((res: Response) => res.json()); } } angular.module('core.phone') .factory('phone', downgradeInjectable(Phone));

Notice that we're importing the map operator of the RxJS Observable separately. We need to do this for all RxJS operators that we want to use, since Angular 2 does not load all of them by default.

注意,我们单独导入了RxJS Observable中的map操作符。 我们需要对想用的所有RxJS操作符这么做,因为Angular 2默认不会加载所有RxJS操作符。

The new Phone service has the same features as the original, ngResource-based service. Because it's an Angular 2 service, we register it with the NgModule providers:

这个新的Phone服务具有和老的基于ngResource的服务相同的特性。 因为它是Angular 2服务,我们通过NgModuleproviders数组来注册它:

app.module.ts

import { Phone } from './core/phone/phone.service'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule, HttpModule, ], providers: [ Phone, ] }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

Now that we are loading phone.service.ts through an import that is resolved by SystemJS, we should remove the <script> tag for the service from index.html. This is something we'll do to all our components as we upgrade them. Simultaneously with the Angular 1 to 2 upgrade we're also migrating our code from scripts to modules.

现在,我们正在用SystemJS加载phone.service.ts,我们应该从index.html移除该服务的<script>标签。 这也是我们在升级所有组件时将会做的事。在从Angular 1向2升级的同时,我们也把代码从脚本移植为模块。

At this point we can switch our two components to use the new service instead of the old one. We $inject it as the downgraded phone factory, but it's really an instance of the Phone class and we can annotate its type accordingly:

这时,我们可以把两个控制器从使用老的服务切换成使用新的。我们像降级过的phones工厂一样$inject它, 但它实际上是一个Phones类的实例,并且我们可以据此注解它的类型:

app/phone-list/phone-list.component.ts

declare var angular: angular.IAngularStatic; import { Phone, PhoneData } from '../core/phone/phone.service'; class PhoneListController { phones: PhoneData[]; orderProp: string; static $inject = ['phone']; constructor(phone: Phone) { phone.query().subscribe(phones => { this.phones = phones; }); this.orderProp = 'age'; } } angular. module('phoneList'). component('phoneList', { templateUrl: 'app/phone-list/phone-list.template.html', controller: PhoneListController });

app/phone-detail/phone-detail.component.ts

declare var angular: angular.IAngularStatic; import { Phone, PhoneData } from '../core/phone/phone.service'; class PhoneDetailController { phone: PhoneData; mainImageUrl: string; static $inject = ['$routeParams', 'phone']; constructor($routeParams: angular.route.IRouteParamsService, phone: Phone) { let phoneId = $routeParams['phoneId']; phone.get(phoneId).subscribe(data => { this.phone = data; this.setImage(data.images[0]); }); } setImage(imageUrl: string) { this.mainImageUrl = imageUrl; } } angular. module('phoneDetail'). component('phoneDetail', { templateUrl: 'phone-detail/phone-detail.template.html', controller: PhoneDetailController });

What we have here are two Angular 1 components using an Angular 2 service! The components don't need to be aware of this, though the fact that the service returns Observables and not Promises is a bit of a giveaway. In any case, what we've achieved is a migration of a service to Angular 2 without having to yet migrate the components that use it.

这里的两个Angular 1控制器在使用Angular 2的服务!控制器不需要关心这一点,尽管实际上该服务返回的是可观察对象(Observable),而不是承诺(Promise)。 无论如何,我们达到的效果都是把服务移植到Angular 2,而不用被迫移植组件来使用它。

We could also use the toPromise method of Observable to turn those Observables into Promises in the service. This can in many cases further reduce the amount of changes needed in the component controllers.

我们也能使用ObservabletoPromise方法来在服务中把这些可观察对象转变成承诺,以进一步减小组件控制器中需要修改的代码量。

Upgrading Components

升级组件

Next, let's upgrade our Angular 1 components to Angular 2 components. We'll do it one at a time, while still keeping the application in hybrid mode. As we make these conversions, we'll also be defining our first Angular 2 pipes.

接下来,我们把Angular 1的控制器升级成Angular 2的组件。我们每次升级一个,同时仍然保持应用运行在混合模式下。 在做转换的同时,我们还将自定义首个Angular 2管道

Let's look at the phone list component first. Right now it contains a TypeScript controller class and a component definition object. We can morph this into an Angular 2 component by just renaming the controller class and turning the Angular 1 component definition object into an Angular 2 @Component decorator. We can then also remove the static $inject property from the class:

让我们先看看电话列表组件。它目前包含一个TypeScript控制器类和一个组件定义对象。重命名控制器类, 并把Angular 1的组件定义对象更换为Angular 2 @Component装饰器,这样我们就把它变形为Angular 2 的组件了。然后,我们还从类中移除静态$inject属性。

app/phone-list/phone-list.component.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { Phone, PhoneData } from '../core/phone/phone.service'; @Component({ moduleId: module.id, selector: 'phone-list', templateUrl: 'phone-list.template.html' }) export class PhoneListComponent { phones: PhoneData[]; query: string; orderProp: string; constructor(phone: Phone) { phone.query().subscribe(phones => { this.phones = phones; }); this.orderProp = 'age'; } /* . . . */ }

The selector attribute is a CSS selector that defines where on the page the component should go. In Angular 1 we do matching based on component names, but in Angular 2 we have these explicit selectors. This one will match elements with the name phone-list, just like the Angular 1 version did.

selector属性是一个CSS选择器,用来定义组件应该被放在页面的哪。在Angular 1,我们基于组件名字来匹配, 但是在Angular 2中,我们要有一个专门指定的选择器。本组件将会对应元素名字phone-list,和Angular 1版本一样。

We now also need to convert the template of this component into Angular 2 syntax. The search controls replace the Angular 1 $ctrl expressions with Angular 2's two-way [(ngModel)] binding syntax:

现在,我们还需要将组件的模版也转换为Angular 2语法。在搜索控件中,我们要为把Angular 1的$ctrl表达式替换成Angular 2的双向绑定语法[(ngModel)]

app/phone-list/phone-list.template.html (search controls)

<p> Search: <input [(ngModel)]="query" /> </p> <p> Sort by: <select [(ngModel)]="orderProp"> <option value="name">Alphabetical</option> <option value="age">Newest</option> </select> </p>

Replace the list's ng-repeat with an *ngFor as described in the Template Syntax page. Replace the image tag's ng-src with a binding to the native src property.

我们需要把列表中的ng-repeat替换为*ngFor以及它的let var of iterable语法, 该语法在模板语法指南中讲过。 对于图片,我们可以把img标签的ng-src替换为一个标准的src属性(property)绑定。

app/phone-list/phone-list.template.html (phones)

<ul class="phones"> <li *ngFor="let phone of getPhones()" class="thumbnail phone-list-item"> <a href="/#!/phones/{{phone.id}}" class="thumb"> <img [src]="phone.imageUrl" [alt]="phone.name" /> </a> <a href="/#!/phones/{{phone.id}}" class="name">{{phone.name}}</a> <p>{{phone.snippet}}</p> </li> </ul>

No Angular 2 filter or orderBy filters

Angular 2中没有filterorderBy过滤器

The built-in Angular 1 filter and orderBy filters do not exist in Angular 2, so we need to do the filtering and sorting ourselves.

Angular 2中并不存在Angular 1中内置的filterorderBy过滤器。 所以我们得自己实现进行过滤和排序。

We replaced the filter and orderBy filters with bindings to the getPhones() controller method, which implements the filtering and ordering logic inside the component itself.

我们把filterorderBy过滤器改成绑定到控制器中的getPhones()方法,通过该方法,组件本身实现了过滤和排序逻辑。

app/phone-list/phone-list.component.ts

getPhones(): PhoneData[] { return this.sortPhones(this.filterPhones(this.phones)); } private filterPhones(phones: PhoneData[]) { if (phones && this.query) { return phones.filter(phone => { let name = phone.name.toLowerCase(); let snippet = phone.snippet.toLowerCase(); return name.indexOf(this.query) >= 0 || snippet.indexOf(this.query) >= 0; }); } return phones; } private sortPhones(phones: PhoneData[]) { if (phones && this.orderProp) { return phones .slice(0) // Make a copy .sort((a, b) => { if (a[this.orderProp] < b[this.orderProp]) { return -1; } else if ([b[this.orderProp] < a[this.orderProp]]) { return 1; } else { return 0; } }); } return phones; }

Now we need to downgrade our Angular 2 component so we can use it in Angular 1. Instead of registering a component, we register a phoneList directive, a downgraded version of the Angular 2 component.

现在我们需要降级我们的Angular 2组件,这样我们就可以在Angular 1中使用它。 我们需要注册一个phoneList指令,而不是注册一个组件,它是一个降级版的Angular 2组件。

The as angular.IDirectiveFactory cast tells the TypeScript compiler that the return value of the downgradeComponent method is a directive factory.

强制类型转换as angular.IDirectiveFactory告诉TypeScript编译器downgradeComponent方法 的返回值是一个指令工厂。

app/phone-list/phone-list.component.ts

declare var angular: angular.IAngularStatic; import { downgradeComponent } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; /* . . . */ @Component({ moduleId: module.id, selector: 'phone-list', templateUrl: 'phone-list.template.html' }) export class PhoneListComponent { /* . . . */ } angular.module('phoneList') .directive( 'phoneList', downgradeComponent({component: PhoneListComponent}) as angular.IDirectiveFactory );

The new PhoneListComponent uses the Angular 2 ngModel directive, located in the FormsModule. Add the FormsModule to NgModule imports, declare the new PhoneListComponent and finally add it to entryComponents since we downgraded it:

新的PhoneListComponent使用Angular 2的ngModel指令,它位于FormsModule中。 把FormsModule添加到NgModuleimports中,并声明新的PhoneListComponent组件, 最后由我们把它降级了,添加到entryComponents

app.module.ts

import { FormsModule } from '@angular/forms'; import { PhoneListComponent } from './phone-list/phone-list.component'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule, HttpModule, FormsModule, ], declarations: [ PhoneListComponent, ], entryComponents: [ PhoneListComponent, }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

Remove the <script> tag for the phone list component from index.html.

index.html中移除电话列表组件的<script>标签。

Now set the remaining phone-detail.component.ts as follows:

现在,剩下的phone-detail.component.ts文件变成了这样:

app/phone-detail/phone-detail.component.ts

declare var angular: angular.IAngularStatic; import { downgradeComponent } from '@angular/upgrade/static'; import { Component, Inject } from '@angular/core'; import { Phone, PhoneData } from '../core/phone/phone.service'; @Component({ moduleId: module.id, selector: 'phone-detail', templateUrl: 'phone-detail.template.html', }) export class PhoneDetailComponent { phone: PhoneData; mainImageUrl: string; constructor(@Inject('$routeParams') $routeParams: any, phone: Phone) { phone.get($routeParams['phoneId']).subscribe(phone => { this.phone = phone; this.setImage(phone.images[0]); }); } setImage(imageUrl: string) { this.mainImageUrl = imageUrl; } } angular.module('phoneDetail') .directive( 'phoneDetail', downgradeComponent({component: PhoneDetailComponent}) as angular.IDirectiveFactory );

This is similar to the phone list component. The new wrinkle is the @Inject decorator that identifies the $routeParams dependency.

这和电话列表组件很相似。 这里的窍门在于@Inject装饰器,它标记出了$routeParams依赖。

The Angular 1 injector has an Angular 1 router dependency called $routeParams. which was injected into PhoneDetails when it was still an Angular 1 controller. We intend to inject it into the new PhoneDetailsComponent.

Angular 1注入器具有Angular 1路由器的依赖,叫做$routeParams。 它被注入到了PhoneDetails中,但PhoneDetails现在还是一个Angular 1控制器。 我们应该把它注入到新的PhoneDetailsComponent中。

Unfortunately, Angular 1 dependencies are not automatically available to Angular 2 components. We must use a Factory provider to make $routeParams an Angular 2 provider. Do that in app.module.ts:

不幸的是,Angular 1的依赖不会自动在Angular 2的组件中可用。 我们必须使用工厂提供商(factory provider) 来把$routeParams包装成Angular 2的服务提供商。 在app.module.ts中这样写:

app/app.module.ts ($routeParms)

providers: [ Phone, { provide: '$routeParams', useFactory: routeParamsFactory, deps: ['$injector'] } ] export function routeParamsFactory(i: any) { return i.get('$routeParams'); }

Convert the phone detail component template into Angular 2 syntax as follows:

我们现在也要把该组件的模板转变成Angular 2的语法。 这里是它完整的新模板:

app/phone-detail/phone-detail.template.html

<div *ngIf="phone"> <div class="phone-images"> <img [src]="img" class="phone" [ngClass]="{selected: img === mainImageUrl}" *ngFor="let img of phone.images" /> </div> <h1>{{phone.name}}</h1> <p>{{phone.description}}</p> <ul class="phone-thumbs"> <li *ngFor="let img of phone.images"> <img [src]="img" (click)="setImage(img)" /> </li> </ul> <ul class="specs"> <li> <span>Availability and Networks</span> <dl> <dt>Availability</dt> <dd *ngFor="let availability of phone.availability">{{availability}}</dd> </dl> </li> <li> <span>Battery</span> <dl> <dt>Type</dt> <dd>{{phone.battery?.type}}</dd> <dt>Talk Time</dt> <dd>{{phone.battery?.talkTime}}</dd> <dt>Standby time (max)</dt> <dd>{{phone.battery?.standbyTime}}</dd> </dl> </li> <li> <span>Storage and Memory</span> <dl> <dt>RAM</dt> <dd>{{phone.storage?.ram}}</dd> <dt>Internal Storage</dt> <dd>{{phone.storage?.flash}}</dd> </dl> </li> <li> <span>Connectivity</span> <dl> <dt>Network Support</dt> <dd>{{phone.connectivity?.cell}}</dd> <dt>WiFi</dt> <dd>{{phone.connectivity?.wifi}}</dd> <dt>Bluetooth</dt> <dd>{{phone.connectivity?.bluetooth}}</dd> <dt>Infrared</dt> <dd>{{phone.connectivity?.infrared | checkmark}}</dd> <dt>GPS</dt> <dd>{{phone.connectivity?.gps | checkmark}}</dd> </dl> </li> <li> <span>Android</span> <dl> <dt>OS Version</dt> <dd>{{phone.android?.os}}</dd> <dt>UI</dt> <dd>{{phone.android?.ui}}</dd> </dl> </li> <li> <span>Size and Weight</span> <dl> <dt>Dimensions</dt> <dd *ngFor="let dim of phone.sizeAndWeight?.dimensions">{{dim}}</dd> <dt>Weight</dt> <dd>{{phone.sizeAndWeight?.weight}}</dd> </dl> </li> <li> <span>Display</span> <dl> <dt>Screen size</dt> <dd>{{phone.display?.screenSize}}</dd> <dt>Screen resolution</dt> <dd>{{phone.display?.screenResolution}}</dd> <dt>Touch screen</dt> <dd>{{phone.display?.touchScreen | checkmark}}</dd> </dl> </li> <li> <span>Hardware</span> <dl> <dt>CPU</dt> <dd>{{phone.hardware?.cpu}}</dd> <dt>USB</dt> <dd>{{phone.hardware?.usb}}</dd> <dt>Audio / headphone jack</dt> <dd>{{phone.hardware?.audioJack}}</dd> <dt>FM Radio</dt> <dd>{{phone.hardware?.fmRadio | checkmark}}</dd> <dt>Accelerometer</dt> <dd>{{phone.hardware?.accelerometer | checkmark}}</dd> </dl> </li> <li> <span>Camera</span> <dl> <dt>Primary</dt> <dd>{{phone.camera?.primary}}</dd> <dt>Features</dt> <dd>{{phone.camera?.features?.join(', ')}}</dd> </dl> </li> <li> <span>Additional Features</span> <dd>{{phone.additionalFeatures}}</dd> </li> </ul> </div>

There are several notable changes here:

这里有几个值得注意的改动:

Add PhoneDetailComponent component to the NgModule declarations and entryComponents:

PhoneDetailComponent组件添加到NgModuledeclarationsentryComponents中:

app.module.ts

import { PhoneDetailComponent } from './phone-detail/phone-detail.component'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule, HttpModule, FormsModule, ], declarations: [ PhoneListComponent, PhoneDetailComponent, ], entryComponents: [ PhoneListComponent, PhoneDetailComponent ], providers: [ Phone, { provide: '$routeParams', useFactory: routeParamsFactory, deps: ['$injector'] } ] }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

We should now also remove the phone detail component <script> tag from index.html.

我们现在应该从index.html中移除电话详情组件的<script>。

Add the CheckmarkPipe

添加CheckmarkPipe

The Angular 1 directive had a checkmark filter. Let's turn that into an Angular 2 pipe.

Angular 1指令中有一个checkmark过滤器,我们把它转换成Angular 2的管道

There is no upgrade method to convert filters into pipes. You won't miss it. It's easy to turn the filter function into an equivalent Pipe class. The implementation is the same as before, repackaged in the transform method. Rename the file to checkmark.pipe.ts to conform with Angular 2 conventions:

没有什么升级方法能把过滤器转换成管道。 但我们也并不需要它。 把过滤器函数转换成等价的Pipe类非常简单。 实现方式和以前一样,但把它们包装进transform方法中就可以了。 把该文件改名成checkmark.pipe.ts,以符合Angular 2中的命名约定:

app/core/checkmark/checkmark.pipe.ts

import { Pipe, PipeTransform } from '@angular/core'; @Pipe({name: 'checkmark'}) export class CheckmarkPipe implements PipeTransform { transform(input: boolean) { return input ? '\u2713' : '\u2718'; } }

Now import and declare the newly created pipe and remove the filter <script> tag from index.html:

当我们做这个修改时,也要同时从core模块文件中移除对该过滤器的注册。该模块的内容变成了:

app.module.ts

import { CheckmarkPipe } from './core/checkmark/checkmark.pipe'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, UpgradeModule, HttpModule, FormsModule, ], declarations: [ PhoneListComponent, PhoneDetailComponent, CheckmarkPipe ], entryComponents: [ PhoneListComponent, PhoneDetailComponent ], providers: [ Phone, { provide: '$routeParams', useFactory: routeParamsFactory, deps: ['$injector'] } ] }) export class AppModule { ngDoBootstrap() {} }

Switching To The Angular 2 Router And Bootstrap

切换到Angular 2路由器和引导程序

At this point we've replaced all Angular 1 application components with their Angular 2 counterparts.

此刻,我们已经把所有Angular 1程序中的部件替换成了Angular 2中的等价物。

The application is still bootstrapped as a hybrid app. There's no need for that anymore.

该应用仍然使用混合式应用的方式进行引导,但其实已经不需要了。

It's time to remove the last remnants of Angular 1 in two final steps:

在最后两步中,我们彻底移除Angular 1的残余势力:

  1. Switch to the Angular 2 router.

  2. 切换到Angular 2路由器。

  3. Bootstrap as a pure Angular 2 app.

  4. 作为纯Angular 2应用进行引导。

Switch to the Angular 2 router

切换到Angular 2路由器

Angular 2 has an all-new router.

Angular 2有一个全新的路由器

Like all routers, it needs a place in the UI to display routed views. The Angular 2 that's the <router-outlet> and it belongs in a root component at the top of the applications component tree.

像所有的路由器一样,它需要在UI中指定一个位置来显示路由的视图。 在Angular 2中,它是<router-outlet>,并位于应用组件树顶部的根组件中。

We don't yet have such a root component, because the app is still managed as an Angular 1 app. Create a new app.component.ts file with the following AppComponent class:

我们还没有这样一个根组件,因为该应用仍然是像一个Angular 1应用那样被管理的。 创建新的app.component.ts文件,放入像这样的AppComponent类:

app/app.component.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; @Component({ selector: 'phonecat-app', template: '<router-outlet></router-outlet>' }) export class AppComponent { }

It has a simple template that only includes the <router-outlet>. This component just renders the contents of the active route and nothing else.

它有一个很简单的模板,只包含<router-outlet>。 该组件只负责渲染活动路由的内容,此外啥也不干。

The selector tells Angular 2 to plug this root component into the <phonecat-app> element on the host web page when the application launches.

该选择器告诉Angular 2:当应用启动时就把这个根组件插入到宿主页面的<phonecat-app>元素中。

Add this <phonecat-app> element to the index.html. It replaces the old Angular 1 ng-view directive:

把这个<phonecat-app>元素插入到index.html中。 用它来代替Angular 1中的ng-view指令:

index.html (body)

<body> <phonecat-app></phonecat-app> </body> </html>

Create the Routing Module

创建路由模块

A router needs configuration whether it's the Angular 1 or Angular 2 or any other router.

无论在Angular 1还是Angular 2或其它框架中,路由器都需要进行配置。

The details of Angular 2 router configuration are best left to the Routing documentation which recommends that you create a NgModule dedicated to router configuration (called a Routing Module):

Angular 2路由器配置的详情最好去查阅下路由与导航文档。 它建议你创建一个专们用于路由器配置的NgModule(名叫路由模块)。

app/app-routing.module.ts

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { Routes, RouterModule } from '@angular/router'; import { APP_BASE_HREF, HashLocationStrategy, LocationStrategy } from '@angular/common'; import { PhoneDetailComponent } from './phone-detail/phone-detail.component'; import { PhoneListComponent } from './phone-list/phone-list.component'; const routes: Routes = [ { path: '', redirectTo: 'phones', pathMatch: 'full' }, { path: 'phones', component: PhoneListComponent }, { path: 'phones/:phoneId', component: PhoneDetailComponent } ]; @NgModule({ imports: [ RouterModule.forRoot(routes) ], exports: [ RouterModule ], providers: [ { provide: APP_BASE_HREF, useValue: '!' }, { provide: LocationStrategy, useClass: HashLocationStrategy }, ] }) export class AppRoutingModule {}

This module defines a routes object with two routes to the two phone components and a default route for the empty path. It passes the routes to the RouterModule.forRoot method which does the rest.

该模块定义了一个routes对象,它带有两个路由,分别指向两个电话组件,以及为空路径指定的默认路由。 它把routes传给RouterModule.forRoot方法,该方法会完成剩下的事。

A couple of extra providers enable routing with "hash" URLs such as #!/phones instead of the default "push state" strategy.

一些额外的提供商让路由器使用“hash”策略解析URL,比如#!/phones,而不是默认的“Push State”策略。

Now update the AppModule to import this AppRoutingModule and also the declare the root AppComponent:

现在,修改AppModule,让它导入这个AppRoutingModule,并同时声明根组件AppComponent

app/app.module.ts

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser'; import { FormsModule } from '@angular/forms'; import { HttpModule } from '@angular/http'; import { AppRoutingModule } from './app-routing.module'; import { AppComponent } from './app.component'; import { CheckmarkPipe } from './core/checkmark/checkmark.pipe'; import { Phone } from './core/phone/phone.service'; import { PhoneDetailComponent } from './phone-detail/phone-detail.component'; import { PhoneListComponent } from './phone-list/phone-list.component'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, FormsModule, HttpModule, AppRoutingModule ], declarations: [ AppComponent, PhoneListComponent, CheckmarkPipe, PhoneDetailComponent ], providers: [ Phone, ], bootstrap: [ AppComponent ] }) export class AppModule {}

The Angular 2 router passes route parameters differently. Correct the PhoneDetail component constructor to expect an injected ActivatedRoute object. Extract the phoneId from the ActivatedRoute.snapshot.params and fetch the phone data as before:

Angular 2路由器传递路由参数的方式不同。 修改PhoneDetail组件的构造函数,来取得一个注入的ActivatedRoute对象。 从ActivatedRoute.snapshot.params中提取phoneId,并像以前那样获取电话数据:

app/phone-detail/phone-detail.component.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router'; import { Phone, PhoneData } from '../core/phone/phone.service'; @Component({ moduleId: module.id, selector: 'phone-detail', templateUrl: 'phone-detail.template.html' }) export class PhoneDetailComponent { phone: PhoneData; mainImageUrl: string; constructor(activatedRoute: ActivatedRoute, phone: Phone) { phone.get(activatedRoute.snapshot.params['phoneId']) .subscribe((p: PhoneData) => { this.phone = p; this.setImage(p.images[0]); }); } setImage(imageUrl: string) { this.mainImageUrl = imageUrl; } }

为每个电话生成链接

We no longer have to hardcode the links to phone details in the phone list. We can generate them data binding each phone's id to the routerLink directive and let that directive construct the appropriate URL to the PhoneDetailComponent:

在电话列表中,我们不用再被迫硬编码电话详情的链接了。 我们可以通过把每个电话的id绑定到routerLink指令来生成它们了,该指令的构造函数会为PhoneDetailComponent生成正确的URL:

app/phone-list/phone-list.template.html (list with links)

<ul class="phones"> <li *ngFor="let phone of getPhones()" class="thumbnail phone-list-item"> <a [routerLink]="['/phones', phone.id]" class="thumb"> <img [src]="phone.imageUrl" [alt]="phone.name" /> </a> <a [routerLink]="['/phones', phone.id]" class="name">{{phone.name}}</a> <p>{{phone.snippet}}</p> </li> </ul>

See the Routing page for details.

要了解详情,请查看路由与导航页。

Bootstrap as an Angular 2 app

作为Angular 2应用进行引导

You may have noticed one extra bootstrap metadata property added to the AppModule

你可能注意到了,有一个额外的元数据属性bootstrap添加进了AppModule中。

app/app.module.ts (bootstrap)

bootstrap: [ AppComponent ]

That tells Angular 2 that it should bootstrap the app with the root AppComponent and insert it's view into the host web page.

这是在告诉Angular 2,它应该使用根组件AppComponent来引导该应用并且把它的视图插入宿主页面中。

Now switch the bootstrap method of the application from the UpgradeAdapter to the Angular 2 way.

现在,把该应用的引导方法从UpgradeAdapter的切换到Angular 2的方式。

Now we can drop upgrade.bootstrap from our application bootstrap, and remove the ngDoBootstrap() override from app.module.ts

现在我可以从应用启动部分删除upgrade.bootstrap,从app.module.ts中删除 ngDoBootstrap()覆盖函数:

main.ts

import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic'; import { AppModule } from './app.module'; platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule);

app.module.ts

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser'; import { FormsModule } from '@angular/forms'; import { HttpModule } from '@angular/http'; import { AppRoutingModule } from './app-routing.module'; import { AppComponent } from './app.component'; import { CheckmarkPipe } from './core/checkmark/checkmark.pipe'; import { Phone } from './core/phone/phone.service'; import { PhoneDetailComponent } from './phone-detail/phone-detail.component'; import { PhoneListComponent } from './phone-list/phone-list.component'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule, FormsModule, HttpModule, AppRoutingModule ], declarations: [ AppComponent, PhoneListComponent, CheckmarkPipe, PhoneDetailComponent ], providers: [ Phone, ], bootstrap: [ AppComponent ] }) export class AppModule {}

You are now running a pure Angular 2 application!

我们现在运行的就是纯正的Angular 2应用了!

Say Goodbye to Angular 1

再见,Angular 1!

It is time to take off the training wheels and let our application begin its new life as a pure, shiny Angular 2 app. The remaining tasks all have to do with removing code - which of course is every programmer's favorite task!

是时候把辅助训练的轮子摘下来了!让我们的应用作为一个纯粹、闪亮的Angular 2程序开始它的新生命吧。 剩下的所有任务就是移除代码 —— 这当然是每个程序员最喜欢的任务!

If you haven't already, remove all references to the UpgradeModule from app.module.ts, as well as any Factory provider for Angular 1 services. Also remove any downgradeComponent() you find, together with the associated Angular 1 directive declarations.

如果你还没有这么做,请从app.module.ts删除所有UpgradeModule的引用, 以及所有用于Angular 1服务的工厂供应商(factory provider)。 还有删除所有的downgradeComponent()以及与Angular 1相关的指令声明。

You may also completely remove the following files. They are Angular 1 module configuration files and not needed in Angular 2:

我们还要完全移除了下列文件。它们是Angular 1的模块配置文件和类型定义文件,在Angular 2中不需要了:

The external typings for Angular 1 may be uninstalled as well. The only ones we still need are for Jasmine and Angular 2 polyfills.

Angular 1的外部类型定义文件还需要被反安装。我们现在只需要Jasmine的那些。

npm uninstall @types/angular @types/angular-animate @types/angular-cookies @types/angular-mocks @types/angular-resource @types/angular-route @types/angular-sanitize --save-dev

Finally, from index.html, remove all references to Angular 1 scripts, the Angular 2 upgrade module, and jQuery. When we're done, this is what it should look like:

最后,从index.htmlkarma.conf.js中,移除所有到Angular 1脚本的引用,比如jQuery。 当这些全部做完时,index.html看起来应该是这样的:

index.html

<!doctype html> <html lang="en"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <base href="/app/"> <title>Google Phone Gallery</title> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.6/css/bootstrap.min.css" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="app.css" /> <script src="/node_modules/core-js/client/shim.min.js"></script> <script src="/node_modules/zone.js/dist/zone.js"></script> <script src="/node_modules/reflect-metadata/Reflect.js"></script> <script src="/node_modules/systemjs/dist/system.src.js"></script> <script src="/systemjs.config.js"></script> <script> System.import('/app'); </script> </head> <body> <phonecat-app></phonecat-app> </body> </html>

That is the last we'll see of Angular 1! It has served us well but now it's time to say goodbye.

这是我们最后一次看到Angular 1了!它曾经带给我们很多帮助,不过现在,是时候说再见了。

Appendix: Upgrading PhoneCat Tests

附录:升级PhoneCat的测试

Tests can not only be retained through an upgrade process, but they can also be used as a valuable safety measure when ensuring that the application does not break during the upgrade. E2E tests are especially useful for this purpose.

测试不仅要在升级过程中被保留,它还是确保应用在升级过程中不会被破坏的一个安全指示器。 要达到这个目的,E2E测试尤其有用。

E2E Tests

E2E测试

The PhoneCat project has both E2E Protractor tests and some Karma unit tests in it. Of these two, E2E tests can be dealt with much more easily: By definition, E2E tests access our application from the outside by interacting with the various UI elements the app puts on the screen. E2E tests aren't really that concerned with the internal structure of the application components. That also means that although we modify our project quite a bit during the upgrade, the E2E test suite should keep passing with just minor modifications. This is because we don't change how the application behaves from the user's point of view.

PhoneCat项目中同时有基于Protractor的E2E测试和一些基于Karma的单元测试。 对这两者来说,E2E测试的转换要容易得多:根据定义,E2E测试通过与应用中显示的这些UI元素互动,从外部访问我们的应用来进行测试。 E2E测试实际上并不关心这些应用中各部件的内部结构。这也意味着,虽然我们已经修改了此应用程序, 但是E2E测试套件仍然应该能像以前一样全部通过。因为从用户的角度来说,我们并没有改变应用的行为。

During TypeScript conversion, there is nothing we have to do to keep E2E tests working. It is only when we change our bootstrap to that of an Hybrid app that we need to make some changes.

在转成TypeScript期间,我们不用做什么就能让E2E测试正常工作。 只有当我们想做些修改而把组件及其模板升级到Angular 2时才需要做些处理。

The following change is needed in protractor-conf.js to sync with hybrid apps:

需要对protractor-conf.js做如修改,与混合应用同步:

ng12Hybrid: true

The next set of changes is when we start to upgrade components and their template to Angular 2. This is because the E2E tests have matchers that are specific to Angular 1. For PhoneCat we need to make the following changes in order to make things work with Angular 2:

当我们开始组件和模块升级到Angular 2时,还需要一系列后续的修改。 这是因为E2E测试有一些匹配器是Angular 1中特有的。对于PhoneCat来说,为了让它能在Angular 2下工作,我们得做下列修改:

Previous code

老代码

New code

新代码

Notes

说明

by.repeater('phone in $ctrl.phones').column('phone.name')

by.css('.phones .name')

The repeater matcher relies on Angular 1 ng-repeat

repeater匹配器依赖于Angular 1中的ng-repeat

by.repeater('phone in $ctrl.phones')

by.css('.phones li')

The repeater matcher relies on Angular 1 ng-repeat

repeater匹配器依赖于Angular 1中的ng-repeat

by.model('$ctrl.query')

by.css('input')

The model matcher relies on Angular 1 ng-model

model匹配器依赖于Angular 1中的ng-model

by.model('$ctrl.orderProp')

by.css('select')

The model matcher relies on Angular 1 ng-model

model匹配器依赖于Angular 1中的ng-model

by.binding('$ctrl.phone.name')

by.css('h1')

The binding matcher relies on Angular 1 data binding

binding匹配器依赖于Angular 1的数据绑定

When the bootstrap method is switched from that of UpgradeModule to pure Angular 2, Angular 1 ceases to exist on the page completely. At this point we need to tell Protractor that it should not be looking for an Angular 1 app anymore, but instead it should find Angular 2 apps from the page.

当引导方式从UpgradeModule切换到纯Angular 2的时,Angular 1就从页面中完全消失了。 此时,我们需要告诉Protractor,它不用再找Angular 1应用了,而是从页面中查找Angular 2应用。 于是在protractor-conf.js中做下列修改:

Replace the ng12Hybrid previously added with the following in protractor-conf.js:

替换之前在protractor-conf.js中加入 ng12Hybrid,象这样:

useAllAngular2AppRoots: true,

Also, there are a couple of Protractor API calls in the PhoneCat test code that are using the Angular 1 $location service under the hood. As that service is no longer there after the upgrade, we need to replace those calls with ones that use WebDriver's generic URL APIs instead. The first of these is the redirection spec:

同样,我们的测试代码中有两个Protractor API调用内部使用了$location。该服务没有了, 我们就得把这些调用用一个WebDriver的通用URL API代替。第一个API是“重定向(redirect)”规约:

e2e-tests/scenarios.ts

it('should redirect `index.html` to `index.html#!/phones', function() { browser.get('index.html'); browser.waitForAngular(); browser.getCurrentUrl().then(function(url: string) { expect(url.endsWith('/phones')).toBe(true); }); });

And the second is the phone links spec:

然后是“电话链接(phone links)”规约:

e2e-tests/scenarios.ts

it('should render phone specific links', function() { let query = element(by.css('input')); query.sendKeys('nexus'); element.all(by.css('.phones li a')).first().click(); browser.getCurrentUrl().then(function(url: string) { expect(url.endsWith('/phones/nexus-s')).toBe(true); }); });

Unit Tests

单元测试

For unit tests, on the other hand, more conversion work is needed. Effectively they need to be upgraded along with the production code.

另一方面,对于单元测试来说,需要更多的转化工作。实际上,它们需要随着产品代码一起升级。

During TypeScript conversion no changes are strictly necessary. But it may be a good idea to convert the unit test code into TypeScript as well, as the same benefits we from TypeScript in production code also applies to tests.

在转成TypeScript期间,严格来讲没有什么改动是必须的。但把单元测试代码转成TypeScript仍然是个好主意, 产品代码从TypeScript中获得的那些增益也同样适用于测试代码。

For instance, in the phone detail component spec we can use not only ES2015 features like arrow functions and block-scoped variables, but also type definitions for some of the Angular 1 services we're consuming:

比如,在这个电话详情组件的规约中,我们不仅用到了ES2015中的箭头函数和块作用域变量这些特性,还为所用的一些 Angular 1服务提供了类型定义。

app/phone-detail/phone-detail.component.spec.ts

describe('phoneDetail', () => { // Load the module that contains the `phoneDetail` component before each test beforeEach(angular.mock.module('phoneDetail')); // Test the controller describe('PhoneDetailController', () => { let $httpBackend: angular.IHttpBackendService; let ctrl: any; let xyzPhoneData = { name: 'phone xyz', images: ['image/url1.png', 'image/url2.png'] }; beforeEach(inject(($componentController: any, _$httpBackend_: angular.IHttpBackendService, $routeParams: angular.route.IRouteParamsService) => { $httpBackend = _$httpBackend_; $httpBackend.expectGET('phones/xyz.json').respond(xyzPhoneData); $routeParams['phoneId'] = 'xyz'; ctrl = $componentController('phoneDetail'); })); it('should fetch the phone details', () => { jasmine.addCustomEqualityTester(angular.equals); expect(ctrl.phone).toEqual({}); $httpBackend.flush(); expect(ctrl.phone).toEqual(xyzPhoneData); }); }); });

Once we start the upgrade process and bring in SystemJS, configuration changes are needed for Karma. We need to let SystemJS load all the new Angular 2 code, which can be done with the following kind of shim file:

一旦我们开始了升级过程并引入了SystemJS,还需要对Karma进行配置修改。 我们需要让SystemJS加载所有的Angular 2新代码,

karma-test-shim.js

// /*global jasmine, __karma__, window*/ Error.stackTraceLimit = 0; // "No stacktrace"" is usually best for app testing. // Uncomment to get full stacktrace output. Sometimes helpful, usually not. // Error.stackTraceLimit = Infinity; // jasmine.DEFAULT_TIMEOUT_INTERVAL = 1000; var builtPath = '/base/app/'; __karma__.loaded = function () { }; function isJsFile(path) { return path.slice(-3) == '.js'; } function isSpecFile(path) { return /\.spec\.(.*\.)?js$/.test(path); } function isBuiltFile(path) { return isJsFile(path) && (path.substr(0, builtPath.length) == builtPath); } var allSpecFiles = Object.keys(window.__karma__.files) .filter(isSpecFile) .filter(isBuiltFile); System.config({ baseURL: '/base', // Extend usual application package list with test folder packages: { 'testing': { main: 'index.js', defaultExtension: 'js' } }, // Assume npm: is set in `paths` in systemjs.config // Map the angular testing umd bundles map: { '@angular/core/testing': 'npm:@angular/core/bundles/core-testing.umd.js', '@angular/common/testing': 'npm:@angular/common/bundles/common-testing.umd.js', '@angular/compiler/testing': 'npm:@angular/compiler/bundles/compiler-testing.umd.js', '@angular/platform-browser/testing': 'npm:@angular/platform-browser/bundles/platform-browser-testing.umd.js', '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic/testing': 'npm:@angular/platform-browser-dynamic/bundles/platform-browser-dynamic-testing.umd.js', '@angular/http/testing': 'npm:@angular/http/bundles/http-testing.umd.js', '@angular/router/testing': 'npm:@angular/router/bundles/router-testing.umd.js', '@angular/forms/testing': 'npm:@angular/forms/bundles/forms-testing.umd.js', }, }); System.import('systemjs.config.js') .then(importSystemJsExtras) .then(initTestBed) .then(initTesting); /** Optional SystemJS configuration extras. Keep going w/o it */ function importSystemJsExtras(){ return System.import('systemjs.config.extras.js') .catch(function(reason) { console.log( 'Warning: System.import could not load the optional "systemjs.config.extras.js". Did you omit it by accident? Continuing without it.' ); console.log(reason); }); } function initTestBed(){ return Promise.all([ System.import('@angular/core/testing'), System.import('@angular/platform-browser-dynamic/testing') ]) .then(function (providers) { var coreTesting = providers[0]; var browserTesting = providers[1]; coreTesting.TestBed.initTestEnvironment( browserTesting.BrowserDynamicTestingModule, browserTesting.platformBrowserDynamicTesting()); }) } // Import all spec files and start karma function initTesting () { return Promise.all( allSpecFiles.map(function (moduleName) { return System.import(moduleName); }) ) .then(__karma__.start, __karma__.error); }

The shim first loads the SystemJS configuration, then Angular 2's test support libraries, and then the application's spec files themselves.

这个shim文件首先加载了SystemJS的配置,然后是Angular 2的测试支持库,然后是应用本身的规约文件。

Karma configuration should then be changed so that it uses the application root dir as the base directory, instead of app.

然后需要修改Karma配置,来让它使用本应用的根目录作为基础目录(base directory),而不是app

karma.conf.js

basePath: './',

Once this is done, we can load SystemJS and other dependencies, and also switch the configuration for loading application files so that they are not included to the page by Karma. We'll let the shim and SystemJS load them.

一旦这些完成了,我们就能加载SystemJS和其它依赖,并切换配置文件来加载那些应用文件,而不用在Karma页面中包含它们。 我们要让这个shim文件和SystemJS去加载它们。

karma.conf.js

// System.js for module loading 'node_modules/systemjs/dist/system.src.js', // Polyfills 'node_modules/core-js/client/shim.js', 'node_modules/reflect-metadata/Reflect.js', // zone.js 'node_modules/zone.js/dist/zone.js', 'node_modules/zone.js/dist/long-stack-trace-zone.js', 'node_modules/zone.js/dist/proxy.js', 'node_modules/zone.js/dist/sync-test.js', 'node_modules/zone.js/dist/jasmine-patch.js', 'node_modules/zone.js/dist/async-test.js', 'node_modules/zone.js/dist/fake-async-test.js', // RxJs. { pattern: 'node_modules/rxjs/**/*.js', included: false, watched: false }, { pattern: 'node_modules/rxjs/**/*.js.map', included: false, watched: false }, // Angular 2 itself and the testing library {pattern: 'node_modules/@angular/**/*.js', included: false, watched: false}, {pattern: 'node_modules/@angular/**/*.js.map', included: false, watched: false}, {pattern: 'systemjs.config.js', included: false, watched: false}, 'karma-test-shim.js', {pattern: 'app/**/*.module.js', included: false, watched: true}, {pattern: 'app/*!(.module|.spec).js', included: false, watched: true}, {pattern: 'app/!(bower_components)/**/*!(.module|.spec).js', included: false, watched: true}, {pattern: 'app/**/*.spec.js', included: false, watched: true}, {pattern: '**/*.html', included: false, watched: true},

Since the HTML templates of Angular 2 components will be loaded as well, we need to help Karma out a bit so that it can route them to the right paths:

由于Angular 2组件中的HTML模板也同样要被加载,所以我们得帮Karma一把,帮它在正确的路径下找到这些模板:

karma.conf.js

// proxied base paths for loading assets proxies: { // required for component assets fetched by Angular's compiler "/phone-detail": '/base/app/phone-detail', "/phone-list": '/base/app/phone-list' },

The unit test files themselves also need to be switched to Angular 2 when their production counterparts are switched. The specs for the checkmark pipe are probably the most straightforward, as the pipe has no dependencies:

如果产品代码被切换到了Angular 2,单元测试文件本身也需要切换过来。对勾(checkmark)管道的规约可能是最简单的,因为它没有任何依赖:

app/core/checkmark/checkmark.pipe.spec.ts

import { CheckmarkPipe } from './checkmark.pipe'; describe('CheckmarkPipe', function() { it('should convert boolean values to unicode checkmark or cross', function () { const checkmarkPipe = new CheckmarkPipe(); expect(checkmarkPipe.transform(true)).toBe('\u2713'); expect(checkmarkPipe.transform(false)).toBe('\u2718'); }); });

The unit test for the phone service is a bit more involved. We need to switch from the mocked-out Angular 1 $httpBackend to a mocked-out Angular 2 Http backend.

Phone服务的测试会牵扯到一点别的。我们需要把模拟版的Angular 1 $httpBackend服务切换到模拟板的Angular 2 Http后端。

app/core/phone/phone.service.spec.ts

import { inject, TestBed } from '@angular/core/testing'; import { Http, BaseRequestOptions, ResponseOptions, Response } from '@angular/http'; import { MockBackend, MockConnection } from '@angular/http/testing'; import { Phone, PhoneData } from './phone.service'; describe('Phone', function() { let phone: Phone; let phonesData: PhoneData[] = [ {name: 'Phone X', snippet: '', images: []}, {name: 'Phone Y', snippet: '', images: []}, {name: 'Phone Z', snippet: '', images: []} ]; let mockBackend: MockBackend; beforeEach(() => { TestBed.configureTestingModule({ providers: [ Phone, MockBackend, BaseRequestOptions, { provide: Http, useFactory: (backend: MockBackend, options: BaseRequestOptions) => new Http(backend, options), deps: [MockBackend, BaseRequestOptions] } ] }); }); beforeEach(inject([MockBackend, Phone], (_mockBackend_: MockBackend, _phone_: Phone) => { mockBackend = _mockBackend_; phone = _phone_; })); it('should fetch the phones data from `/phones/phones.json`', (done: () => void) => { mockBackend.connections.subscribe((conn: MockConnection) => { conn.mockRespond(new Response(new ResponseOptions({body: JSON.stringify(phonesData)}))); }); phone.query().subscribe(result => { expect(result).toEqual(phonesData); done(); }); }); });

For the component specs we can mock out the Phone service itself, and have it provide canned phone data. We use Angular's component unit testing APIs for both components.

对于组件的规约,我们可以模拟出Phone服务本身,并且让它提供电话的数据。我们可以对这些组件使用Angular的组件单元测试API。

app/phone-detail/phone-detail.component.spec.ts

import { ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router'; import { Observable } from 'rxjs/Rx'; import { async, TestBed } from '@angular/core/testing'; import { PhoneDetailComponent } from './phone-detail.component'; import { Phone, PhoneData } from '../core/phone/phone.service'; import { CheckmarkPipe } from '../core/checkmark/checkmark.pipe'; function xyzPhoneData(): PhoneData { return { name: 'phone xyz', snippet: '', images: ['image/url1.png', 'image/url2.png'] }; } class MockPhone { get(id: string): Observable<PhoneData> { return Observable.of(xyzPhoneData()); } } class ActivatedRouteMock { constructor(public snapshot: any) {} } describe('PhoneDetailComponent', () => { beforeEach(async(() => { TestBed.configureTestingModule({ declarations: [ CheckmarkPipe, PhoneDetailComponent ], providers: [ { provide: Phone, useClass: MockPhone }, { provide: ActivatedRoute, useValue: new ActivatedRouteMock({ params: { 'phoneId': 1 } }) } ] }) .compileComponents(); })); it('should fetch phone detail', () => { const fixture = TestBed.createComponent(PhoneDetailComponent); fixture.detectChanges(); let compiled = fixture.debugElement.nativeElement; expect(compiled.querySelector('h1').textContent).toContain(xyzPhoneData().name); }); });

app/phone-list/phone-list.component.spec.ts

import { NO_ERRORS_SCHEMA } from '@angular/core'; import { ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router'; import { Observable } from 'rxjs/Rx'; import { async, ComponentFixture, TestBed } from '@angular/core/testing'; import { SpyLocation } from '@angular/common/testing'; import { PhoneListComponent } from './phone-list.component'; import { Phone, PhoneData } from '../core/phone/phone.service'; class ActivatedRouteMock { constructor(public snapshot: any) {} } class MockPhone { query(): Observable<PhoneData[]> { return Observable.of([ {name: 'Nexus S', snippet: '', images: []}, {name: 'Motorola DROID', snippet: '', images: []} ]); } } let fixture: ComponentFixture<PhoneListComponent>; describe('PhoneList', () => { beforeEach(async(() => { TestBed.configureTestingModule({ declarations: [ PhoneListComponent ], providers: [ { provide: ActivatedRoute, useValue: new ActivatedRouteMock({ params: { 'phoneId': 1 } }) }, { provide: Location, useClass: SpyLocation }, { provide: Phone, useClass: MockPhone }, ], schemas: [ NO_ERRORS_SCHEMA ] }) .compileComponents(); })); beforeEach(() => { fixture = TestBed.createComponent(PhoneListComponent); }); it('should create "phones" model with 2 phones fetched from xhr', () => { fixture.detectChanges(); let compiled = fixture.debugElement.nativeElement; expect(compiled.querySelectorAll('.phone-list-item').length).toBe(2); expect( compiled.querySelector('.phone-list-item:nth-child(1)').textContent ).toContain('Motorola DROID'); expect( compiled.querySelector('.phone-list-item:nth-child(2)').textContent ).toContain('Nexus S'); }); xit('should set the default value of orderProp model', () => { fixture.detectChanges(); let compiled = fixture.debugElement.nativeElement; expect( compiled.querySelector('select option:last-child').selected ).toBe(true); }); });

Finally, we need to revisit both of the component tests when we switch to the Angular 2 router. For the details component we need to provide a mock of Angular 2 ActivatedRoute object instead of using the Angular 1 $routeParams.

最后,当我们切换到Angular 2路由时,我们需要重新过一遍这些组件测试。对详情组件来说,我们需要提供一个Angular 2 RouteParams的mock对象,而不再用Angular 1中的$routeParams

app/phone-detail/phone-detail.component.spec.ts

import { ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router'; /* . . . */ class ActivatedRouteMock { constructor(public snapshot: any) {} } /* . . . */ beforeEach(async(() => { TestBed.configureTestingModule({ declarations: [ CheckmarkPipe, PhoneDetailComponent ], providers: [ { provide: Phone, useClass: MockPhone }, { provide: ActivatedRoute, useValue: new ActivatedRouteMock({ params: { 'phoneId': 1 } }) } ] }) .compileComponents(); }));

And for the phone list component we need to set up a few things for the router itself so that the route link directive will work.

对于电话列表组件来说,我们需要为路由器本身略作设置,以便它的路由链接(routerLink)指令能够正常工作。

app/phone-list/phone-list.component.spec.ts

import { NO_ERRORS_SCHEMA } from '@angular/core'; import { ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router'; import { Observable } from 'rxjs/Rx'; import { async, ComponentFixture, TestBed } from '@angular/core/testing'; import { SpyLocation } from '@angular/common/testing'; import { PhoneListComponent } from './phone-list.component'; import { Phone, PhoneData } from '../core/phone/phone.service'; /* . . . */ beforeEach(async(() => { TestBed.configureTestingModule({ declarations: [ PhoneListComponent ], providers: [ { provide: ActivatedRoute, useValue: new ActivatedRouteMock({ params: { 'phoneId': 1 } }) }, { provide: Location, useClass: SpyLocation }, { provide: Phone, useClass: MockPhone }, ], schemas: [ NO_ERRORS_SCHEMA ] }) .compileComponents(); })); beforeEach(() => { fixture = TestBed.createComponent(PhoneListComponent); });