Introduction to components

组件简介

Component

A component controls a patch of screen called a view. For example, individual components define and control each of the following views from the Tutorial:

组件控制屏幕上被称为视图的一小片区域。比如,教程中的下列视图都是由一个个组件所定义和控制的:

  • The app root with the navigation links.

    带有导航链接的应用根组件。

  • The list of heroes.

    英雄列表。

  • The hero editor.

    英雄编辑器。

You define a component's application logic—what it does to support the view—inside a class. The class interacts with the view through an API of properties and methods.

你在类中定义组件的应用逻辑,为视图提供支持。 组件通过一些由属性和方法组成的 API 与视图交互。

For example, the HeroListComponent has a heroes property that holds an array of heroes. It also has a selectHero() method that sets a selectedHero property when the user clicks to choose a hero from that list. The component acquires the heroes from a service, which is a TypeScript parameter property on the constructor. The service is provided to the component through the dependency injection system.

比如,HeroListComponent 有一个 heroes 属性,它会返回一个从服务中取到的英雄数组。 HeroListComponent 还有一个 selectHero() 方法,当用户从列表中选择一个英雄时,它会设置 selectedHero 属性的值。 该组件会从服务获取英雄列表,它是一个 TypeScript 的构造器参数型属性。本服务通过依赖注入系统提供给该组件。

export class HeroListComponent implements OnInit { heroes: Hero[]; selectedHero: Hero; constructor(private service: HeroService) { } ngOnInit() { this.heroes = this.service.getHeroes(); } selectHero(hero: Hero) { this.selectedHero = hero; } }

Angular creates, updates, and destroys components as the user moves through the application. Your app can take action at each moment in this lifecycle through optional lifecycle hooks, like ngOnInit().

当用户在应用中穿行时,Angular 就会创建、更新、销毁一些组件。 你的应用可以通过一些可选的生命周期钩子(比如ngOnInit())来在每个特定的时机采取行动。


Component metadata

组件的元数据

Metadata

The @Component decorator identifies the class immediately below it as a component class, and specifies its metadata. In the example code below, you can see that HeroListComponent is just a class, with no special Angular notation or syntax at all. It's not a component until you mark it as one with the @Component decorator.

@Component 装饰器会指出紧随其后的那个类是个组件类,并为其指定元数据。 在下面的范例代码中,你可以看到 HeroListComponent 只是一个普通类,完全没有 Angular 特有的标记或语法。 直到给它加上了 @Component 装饰器,它才变成了组件。

The metadata for a component tells Angular where to get the major building blocks it needs to create and present the component and its view. In particular, it associates a template with the component, either directly with inline code, or by reference. Together, the component and its template describe a view.

组件的元数据告诉 Angular 到哪里获取它需要的主要构造块,以创建和展示这个组件及其视图。 具体来说,它把一个模板(无论是直接内联在代码中还是引用的外部文件)和该组件关联起来。 该组件及其模板,共同描述了一个视图

In addition to containing or pointing to the template, the @Component metadata configures, for example, how the component can be referenced in HTML and what services it requires.

除了包含或指向模板之外,@Component 的元数据还会配置要如何在 HTML 中引用该组件,以及该组件需要哪些服务等等。

Here's an example of basic metadata for HeroListComponent:

下面的例子中就是 HeroListComponent 的基础元数据:

@Component({ selector: 'app-hero-list', templateUrl: './hero-list.component.html', providers: [ HeroService ] }) export class HeroListComponent implements OnInit { /* . . . */ }

This example shows some of the most useful @Component configuration options:

这个例子展示了一些最常用的 @Component 配置选项:

  • selector: A CSS selector that tells Angular to create and insert an instance of this component wherever it finds the corresponding tag in template HTML. For example, if an app's HTML contains <app-hero-list></app-hero-list>, then Angular inserts an instance of the HeroListComponent view between those tags.

    selector:是一个 CSS 选择器,它会告诉 Angular,一旦在模板 HTML 中找到了这个选择器对应的标签,就创建并插入该组件的一个实例。 比如,如果应用的 HTML 中包含 <app-hero-list></app-hero-list>,Angular 就会在这些标签中插入一个 HeroListComponent 实例的视图。

  • templateUrl: The module-relative address of this component's HTML template. Alternatively, you can provide