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创建库

Creating Libraries

你可以创建和发布新库来扩展 Angular 的功能。如果你发现需要在多个应用中解决同样的问题(或者想与其他开发者共享你的解决方案),你就有了一个潜在的库。

You can create and publish new libraries to extend Angular functionality. If you find that you need to solve the same problem in more than one app (or want to share your solution with other developers), you have a candidate for a library.

一个简单的例子就是把用户带到你公司网站上的按钮,该按钮会包含在你公司构建的所有应用中。

An simple example might be a button that sends users to your company website, that would be included in all apps that your company builds.

快速起步

Getting started

使用 Angular CLI,用以下命令生成一个新库的骨架:

Use the Angular CLI to generate a new library skeleton with the following command:

ng generate library my-lib
      
      ng generate library my-lib
    

这会在你的工作区中创建 projects/my-lib 文件夹,里面包含 NgModule 中的一个组件和一个服务。该工作区的配置文件 angular.json 中也添加了一个 'library' 类型的项目。

This creates the projects/my-lib folder in your workspace, which contains a component and a service inside an NgModule. The workspace configuration file, angular.json, is updated with a project of type 'library'.

"projects": { ... "my-lib": { "root": "projects/my-lib", "sourceRoot": "projects/my-lib/src", "projectType": "library", "prefix": "lib", "architect": { "build": { "builder": "@angular-devkit/build-ng-packagr:build", ...
      
      "projects": {
  ...
  "my-lib": {
    "root": "projects/my-lib",
    "sourceRoot": "projects/my-lib/src",
    "projectType": "library",
    "prefix": "lib",
    "architect": {
      "build": {
        "builder": "@angular-devkit/build-ng-packagr:build",
        ...
    

你可以使用 CLI 命令来构建、测试和 lint 这个项目:

You can build, test, and lint the project with CLI commands:

ng build my-lib ng test my-lib ng lint my-lib
      
      ng build my-lib
ng test my-lib
ng lint my-lib
    

注意,该项目配置的构建器与应用类项目的默认构建器不同。此构建器可以确保库永远使用 AoT 编译器构建,而不必再指定--prod标志。

Notice that the configured builder for the project is different from the default builder for app projects. This builder, among other things, ensures that the library is always built with the AoT compiler, without the need to specify the --prod flag.

要让库代码可以复用,你必须为它定义一个公共的 API。这个“用户层”定义了库中消费者的可用内容。该库的用户应该可以通过单个的导入路径来访问公共功能(如NgModules、服务提供商和工具函数)。

To make library code reusable you must define a public API for it. This "user layer" defines what is available to consumers of your library. A user of your library should be able to access public functionality (such as NgModules, service providers and general utility functions) through a single import path.

库的公共 API 是在库文件夹下的 index.ts 文件中维护的。当你的库被导入应用时,从该文件导出的所有内容都会公开。请使用 NgModule 来暴露这些服务和组件。

The public API for your library is maintained in the index.ts file of your library folder. Anything exported from this file is made public when your library is imported into an application. Use an NgModule to expose services and components.

你的库里应该提供一些文档(通常是 README 文件)来指导别人安装和维护。

Your library should supply documentation (typically a README file) for installation and maintenance.

把应用中的部分内容重构成一个库

Refactoring parts of an app into a library

为了让你的解决方案可供复用,你需要对它进行调整,以免它依赖应用特有的代码。在将应用的功能迁移到库中时,需要注意以下几点。

To make your solution reusable, you need to adjust it so that it does not depend on app-specific code. Here are some things to consider in migrating application functionality to a library.

  • 组件和管道之类的可声明对象应该设计成无状态的,这意味着它们不依赖或修改外部变量。如果确实依赖于状态,就需要对每种情况进行评估,以决定它是应用的状态还是库要管理的状态。

    Declarations such as components and pipes should be designed as stateless, meaning they don’t rely on or alter external variables. If you do rely on state, you need to evaluate every case and decide whether it is application state or state that the library would manage.

  • 组件内部订阅的所有可观察对象都应该在这些组件的生命周期内进行清理和释放。

    Any observables that the components subscribe to internally should be cleaned up and disposed of during the lifecycle of those components.

  • 组件对外暴露交互方式时,应该通过输入参数来提供上下文,通过输出参数来将事件传递给其他组件。

    Components should expose their interactions through inputs for providing context, and outputs for communicating events to other components.

  • 服务应该声明自己的提供商(而不是在 NgModule 或组件中声明提供商),这样它们才是可摇树优化的 。这样,如果该服务从未被注入到导入该库的应用中,编译器就会把该服务从发布包中删除。欲知详情,请参阅可摇树优化的提供商

    Services should declare their own providers (rather than declaring providers in the NgModule or a component), so that they are tree-shakable. This allows the compiler to leave the service out of the bundle if it never gets injected into the application that imports the library. For more about this, see Tree-shakable providers.

  • 如果你在多个 NgModule 中注册全局服务提供商或共享提供商,请使用 RouterModule 提供的 forRoot()forChild() 模式

    If you register global service providers or share providers across multiple NgModules, use the forRoot() and forChild() patterns provided by the RouterModule.

  • 检查所有内部依赖。

    Check all internal dependencies.

    • 对于在组件或服务中使用的自定义类或接口,检查它们是否依赖于其它类或接口,它们也需要一起迁移。

      For custom classes or interfaces used in components or service, check whether they depend on additional classes or interfaces that also need to be migrated.

    • 同样,如果你的库代码依赖于某个服务,则需要迁移该服务。

      Similarly, if your library code depends on a service, that service needs to be migrated.

    • 如果你的库代码或其模板依赖于其它库(比如 Angular Material ),你就必须把它们配置为该库的依赖。

      If your library code or its templates depend on other libraries (such a Angular Material, for instance), you must configure your library with those dependencies.

可复用的代码和 schematics

Reusable code and schematics

库通常都包含可复用的代码,用于定义组件、服务,以及你刚才导入到项目中的其它 Angular 工件(管道,指令等)。库被打包在一个 npm 包中,用于发布和共享,这个包还可以包含一些 schematics,用于提供直接在项目中生成或转换代码的指令,就像 CLI 用 ng generate component 创建一个通用的骨架应用一样。例如,与库配套的 schematics 可以为 Angular CLI 提供生成该库中定义的特定组件所需的信息。

A library typically includes reusable code that defines components, services, and other Angular artifacts (pipes, directives, and so on) that you simply import into a project. A library is packaged into an npm package for publishing and sharing, and this package can also include schematics that provide instructions for generating or transforming code directly in your project, in the same way that the CLI creates a generic skeleton app with ng generate component. A schematic that is combined with a library can, for example, provide the Angular CLI with the information it needs to generate a particular component defined in that library.

你在库中所包含的内容取决于你要完成的任务类型。例如,如果你想用一个带有预置数据的下拉列表来展示如何把它添加到应用中,你的库中就可以定义一个 schematic 来创建它。对于像下拉列表那样每次都要传入不同值的组件,你可以把它作为共享库中的组件提供出来。

What you include in your library is determined by the kind of task you are trying to accomplish. For example, if you want a dropdown with some canned data to show how to add it to your app, your library could define a schematic to create it. For a component like a dropdown that would contain different passed-in values each time, you could provide it as a component in a shared library.

假设你要读取配置文件,然后根据该配置生成表单。如果该表单需要用户进行额外的自定义,它可能最适合用作 schematic。但是,如果这些表单总是一样的,开发人员不需要做太多自定义工作,那么你就可以创建一个动态的组件来获取配置并生成表单。通常,自定义越复杂, schematic 方式就越有用。

Suppose you want to read a configuration file and then generate a form based on that configuration. If that form will need additional customization by the user, it might work best as a schematic. However, if the forms will always be the same and not need much customization by developers, then you could create a dynamic component that takes the configuration and generates the form. In general, the more complex the customization, the more useful the schematic approach.

与 CLI 集成

Integrating with the CLI

库中可以包含那些能与 Angular CLI 集成的 schematics

A library can include schematics that allow it to integrate with the Angular CLI.

  • 包含一个安装型 schematic,以便 ng add 可以把你的库添加到项目中。

    Include an installation schematic so that ng add can add your library to a project.

  • 包含一些生成型 schematic ,以便 ng generate 可以为项目中的已定义工件(组件,服务,测试等)生成脚手架。

    Include generation schematics in your library so that ng generate can scaffold your defined artifacts (components, services, tests, and so on) in a project.

  • 包含一个更新型 schematic ,以便 ng update 可以更新此库的依赖,并针对新版本中的破坏性变更提供辅助迁移。

    Include an update schematic so that ng update can update your library’s dependencies and provide migrations for breaking changes in new releases.

要了解更多信息,参见 Schematic - 简介

To learn more, see Schematics — An Introduction.

发布你的库

Publishing your library

使用 Angular CLI 和 npm 包管理器来把你的库构建并发布成 npm 包。默认情况下,库是在 AoT模式 下构建的,因此在构建发布时你不需要指定-prod标志。

Use the Angular CLI and the npm package manager to build and publish your library as an npm package. Libraries are built in AoT mode by default, so you do not need to specify the -prod flag when building for publication.

ng build my-lib cd dist/my-lib npm publish
      
      ng build my-lib
cd dist/my-lib
npm publish
    

如果你之前从未在 npm 中发布过包,就必须创建一个用户帐号。点此阅读发布 npm 包的更多信息。

If you've never published a package in npm before, you must create a user account. Read more in Publishing npm Packages.

链接库

Linked libraries

在开发要发布的库时,可以使用 npm link 来避免每次构建时都被迫重新安装库。

While working on a published library, you can use npm link to avoid reinstalling the library on every build.

必须在每次修改时都重新构建这个库。在链接库时,确保构建步骤在监视模式下运行,并且该库的 package.json 配置指向了正确的入口点。例如,main 应该指向一个 JavaScript 文件,而不是一个 TypeScript 文件。

The library must be rebuilt on every change. When linking a library, make sure that the build step runs in watch mode, and that the library's package.json configuration points at the correct entry points. For example, main should point at a JavaScript file, not a TypeScript file.

对同级依赖使用 TypeScript 路径映射

Use TypeScript path mapping for peer dependencies

Angular 库应该把所有 @angular/* 依赖项都列为同级依赖。这确保了当各个模块请求 Angular 时,都会得到完全相同的模块。如果某个库在 dependencies 列出 @angular/core 而不是用 peerDependencies ,它可能会得到一个不同的 Angular 模块,这会破坏你的应用。

Angular libraries should list all @angular/* dependencies as peer dependencies. This insures that when modules ask for Angular, they all get the exact same module. If a library lists @angular/core in dependencies instead of peerDependencies, it might get a different Angular module instead, which would cause your application to break.

在开发库的过程中,你必须通过 devDependencies 安装所有的同级依赖,以确保库能够正确编译。这样,一个链接过的库就会拥有自己的一组用于构建的 Angular 库,它们位于 node_modules 文件夹中。但是,这会在构建或运行应用程序时引发问题。

While developing a library, you must install all peer dependencies through devDependencies to ensure that the library compiles properly. A linked library will then have its own set of Angular libraries that it uses for building, located in its node_modules folder. However, this can cause problems while building or running your application.

为了解决此问题,你可以使用 TypeScript 路径映射来告诉 TypeScript 它应该从指定的位置加载某些模块。在 TypeScript 配置文件./tsconfig.json 中列出该库使用的所有同级依赖,并把它们指向应用的 node_modules 文件夹中的本地副本。

To get around this problem you can use TypeScript path mapping to tell TypeScript that it should load some modules from a specific location. List all the peer dependencies that your library uses in the TypeScript configuration file ./tsconfig.json, and point them at the local copy in the app's node_modules folder.

{ "compilerOptions": { // ... // paths are relative to `baseUrl` path. "paths": { "@angular/*": [ "../node_modules/@angular/*" ] } } }
      
      {
  "compilerOptions": {
    // ...
    // paths are relative to `baseUrl` path.
    "paths": {
      "@angular/*": [
        "../node_modules/@angular/*"
      ]
    }
  }
}
    

此映射可确保你的库始终加载所需模块的本地副本。

This mapping ensures that your library always loads the local copies of the modules it needs.

在应用中使用自己的库

Using your own library in apps

你不必把库发布到 npm 包管理器上就可以在自己的应用中使用它,但必须先构建它。

You don't have to publish your library to the npm package manager in order to use it in your own apps, but you do have to build it first.

要想在应用中使用你自己的库:

To use your own library in an app:

  • 构建该库。在构建之前,无法使用库。

    Build the library. You cannot use a library before it is built.

    ng build my-lib
          
          ng build my-lib
        
  • 在你的应用中,按名字从库中导入:

    In your apps, import from the library by name:

    import { my-export } from 'my-lib';
          
          import { my-export } from 'my-lib';
        

构建和重建你的库

Building and rebuilding your library

如果你没有把库发布为 npm 包,然后把它从 npm 安装到你的应用中,那么构建步骤就是必要的。例如,如果你克隆了 git 仓库并运行了 npm install ,编辑器就会把 my-lib 的导入显示为缺失状态(如果你还没有构建过该库)。

The build step is important if you haven't published your library as an npm package and then installed the package back into your app from npm. For instance, if you clone your git repository and run npm install, your editor will show the my-lib imports as missing if you haven't yet built your library.

当你在 Angular 应用中从某个库导入一些东西时,Angular 就会寻找库名和磁盘上某个位置之间的映射关系。当你用 npm 包安装该库时,它就映射到 node_modules 目录下。当你自己构建库时,它就会在 tsconfig 路径中查找这个映射。

When you import something from a library in an Angular app, Angular looks for a mapping between the library name and a location on disk. When you install a library package, the mapping is in the node_modules folder. When you build your own library, it has to find the mapping in your tsconfig paths.

用 Angular CLI 生成库时,会自动把它的路径添加到 tsconfig 文件中。 Angular CLI 使用 tsconfig 路径告诉构建系统在哪里寻找这个库。

Generating a library with the Angular CLI automatically adds its path to the tsconfig file. The Angular CLI uses the tsconfig paths to tell the build system where to find the library.

如果你发现库中的更改没有反映到应用中,那么你的应用很可能正在使用这个库的旧版本。

If you find that changes to your library are not reflected in your app, your app is probably using an old build of the library.

每当你对它进行修改时,都可以重建你的库,但这个额外的步骤需要时间。增量构建功能可以改善库的开发体验。每当文件发生变化时,都会执行局部构建,并修补一些文件。

You can rebuild your library whenever you make changes to it, but this extra step takes time. Incremental builds functionality improves the library-development experience. Every time a file is changed a partial build is performed that emits the amended files.

增量构建可以作为开发环境中的后台进程运行。要启用这个特性,可以在构建命令中加入 --watch 标志:

Incremental builds can be run as a backround process in your dev environment. To take advantage of this feature add the --watch flag to the build command:

ng build my-lib --watch
      
      ng build my-lib --watch