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弃用的 API 和特性

Deprecated APIs and features

Angular 力图兼顾创新与稳定。但有时,API 和特性已经过时,需要进行删除或替换,以便 Angular 可以及时跟上新的最佳实践、依赖项变更或者 Web 平台自身的变化。

Angular strives to balance innovation and stability. Sometimes, APIs and features become obsolete and need to be removed or replaced so that Angular can stay current with new best practices, changing dependencies, or changes in the (web) platform itself.

为了让这些转换变得尽可能简单,我们会在删除 API 和特性之前先弃用它们一段时间。让你有时间把应用更新到最新的 API 和最佳实践。

To make these transitions as easy as possible, we deprecate APIs and features for a period of time before removing them. This gives you time to update your apps to the latest APIs and best practices.

本指南包含了当前不推荐使用的所有 Angular API 和特性的汇总表。

This guide contains a summary of all Angular APIs and features that are currently deprecated.

v6 或更早版本中已弃用的特性和 API 将会在版本 9 或更高级版本中删除。要了解 Angular 中关于弃用和删除的实践,参阅Angular 发布实践

Features and APIs that were deprecated in v6 or earlier are candidates for removal in version 9 or any later major version. For information about Angular's deprecation and removal practices, see Angular Release Practices.

关于如何更新到最新 Angular 版本的分步说明,参阅 update.angular.io 上的交互式更新指南。

For step-by-step instructions on how to update to the latest Angular release, use the interactive update guide at update.angular.io.

索引

Index

为了帮助你确保应用程序的前瞻性,下表列出了所有已弃用的 API 和功能,这些 API 和功能按发行版进行组织,它们将被删除。每个条目都链接到本指南后面的部分,该部分描述了弃用原因和替换选项。

To help you future-proof your apps, the following table lists all deprecated APIs and features, organized by the release in which they are candidates for removal. Each item is linked to the section later in this guide that describes the deprecation reason and replacement options.

区域

Area

API 或特性

API or Feature

可能会在什么时候移除

May be removed in

@angular/commonReflectiveInjectorv11
@angular/commonCurrencyPipe - DEFAULT_CURRENCY_CODEv11
@angular/common/httpXhrFactoryv15
@angular/coreDefaultIterableDifferv11
@angular/coreReflectiveKeyv11
@angular/coreRenderComponentTypev11
@angular/coreWrappedValuev12
@angular/forms

响应式表单中的 ngModel

ngModel with reactive forms

v11

v11

@angular/upgrade@angular/upgradev11
@angular/upgradegetAngularLibv11
@angular/upgradesetAngularLibv11

模板语法

template syntax

<template>

<template>

v11

v11

腻子脚本

polyfills

reflect-metadata

v11

v11

npm 软件包格式

npm package format

@angular/* npm 软件包中的 esm5fesm5 入口点

esm5 and fesm5 entry-points in @angular/* npm packages

v11
@angular/coredefineInjectablev11
@angular/coreentryComponentsv11
@angular/coreANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTSv11
@angular/router

loadChildren 字符串语法

loadChildren string syntax

v11
@angular/core/testingTestBed.getv12
@angular/core/testingasyncv12
@angular/forms

FormBuilder.group 老式选项参数

FormBuilder.group legacy options parameter

v14
@angular/router

ActivatedRoute 参数和 queryParams 属性

ActivatedRoute params and queryParams properties

未定

unspecified

模板语法

template syntax

/deep/, >>>, 和 ::ng-deep

/deep/, >>>, and ::ng-deep

未定

unspecified

要了解 Angular CDK 和 Angular Material 的弃用情况,参阅变更记录

For information about Angular CDK and Angular Material deprecations, see the changelog.

已弃用的 API

Deprecated APIs

本节包含所有当前已弃用的 API 的完整列表,其中包含一些可帮助你规划如何迁移到其替代品的详细信息。

This section contains a complete list all of the currently-deprecated APIs, with details to help you plan your migration to a replacement.

提示:在本文档站的 API 参考手册部分,不推荐使用的 API 会用删除线标记出来。你可以按状态: 已弃用来过滤 API 列表。

Tip: In the API reference section of this doc site, deprecated APIs are indicated by strikethrough. You can filter the API list by Status: deprecated.

@angular/common

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

CurrencyPipe - DEFAULT_CURRENCY_CODE{provide: DEFAULT_CURRENCY_CODE, useValue: 'USD'}v9

从 v11 开始,默认代码将从由 LOCAL_ID 提供的本地环境数据中提取,而不再是固定值 USD

From v11 the default code will be extracted from the locale data given by LOCAL_ID, rather than USD.

@angular/common/http

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

XhrFactory

@angular/common 中的 XhrFactory

XhrFactory in @angular/common

v12

XhrFactory 已从 @angular/common/http 移到了 @angular/common

The XhrFactory has moved from @angular/common/http to @angular/common.

@angular/core

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

DefaultIterableDiffer

不适用

n/a

v4

不属于公共 API。

Not part of public API.

ReflectiveInjectorInjector.create()v5

参阅 ReflectiveInjector

See ReflectiveInjector

ReflectiveKey

none

v5

none

defineInjectableɵɵdefineInjectablev8

仅在生成的代码中使用。任何源代码都不应依赖此 API。

Used only in generated code. No source code should depend on this API.

entryComponents

none

v9

参阅 entryComponents

See entryComponents

ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS

none

v9

参阅 ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS

See ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS

WrappedValue

none

v10

参阅移除 WrappedValue

See removing WrappedValue

asyncwaitForAsyncv11

@angular/core/testing 中的 async 函数已经改名为 waitForAsync 以免与 JavaScript 原生 async 语法混淆。现有函数已经标记为弃用,并将在未来版本中移除。

The async function from @angular/core/testing has been renamed to waitForAsync in order to avoid confusion with the native JavaScript async syntax. The existing function is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.

[ ViewChildren.emitDistinctChangesOnly / ContentChildren.emitDistinctChangesOnly

无(作为 issue #40091)的一部分]

none (was part of issue #40091) ]

这是为了修复 issue #40091 而引入的临时标志,以后将会被移除。

This is a temporary flag introduced as part of bugfix of issue #40091 and will be removed.

@angular/core/testing

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

TestBed.getTestBed.injectv9

行为相同,但类型安全。

Same behavior, but type safe.

asyncwaitForAsyncv10

行为相同,只是改名以免混淆。

Same behavior, but rename to avoid confusion.

@angular/forms

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

响应式表单中的 ngModel

ngModel with reactive forms

参阅 FormControlDirective 使用说明

FormControlDirective

v6

none

FormBuilder.group 老式选项参数

FormBuilder.group legacy options parameter

AbstractControlOptions 参数值

AbstractControlOptions parameter value

v11

none

@angular/upgrade

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

所有入口点

All entry points

@angular/upgrade/staticv5

参阅 从 AngularJS 升级

See Upgrading from AngularJS.

@angular/upgrade/static

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

getAngularLibgetAngularJSGlobalv5

参阅从 AngularJS 升级

See Upgrading from AngularJS.

setAngularLibsetAngularJSGlobalv5

参阅从 AngularJS 升级

See Upgrading from AngularJS.

已弃用的特性

Deprecated features

本节列出了所有当前已弃用的特性,包括模板语法、配置选项,以及前面已弃用的 API 部分未列出的其它弃用。它还包括已弃用的 API 用例或 API 组合,以增强上述信息。

This section lists all of the currently-deprecated features, which includes template syntax, configuration options, and any other deprecations not listed in the Deprecated APIs section above. It also includes deprecated API usage scenarios or API combinations, to augment the information above.

Bazel 构建器及其原理图

Bazel builder and schematics

Bazel 构建器及其原理图曾经被引入到 Angular Labs 中,以便让用户尝试 Bazel,而不用管理 Bazel 的版本和 BUILD 文件。 该特性已经弃用了。欲知详情,参阅迁移文档

Bazel builder and schematics were introduced in Angular Labs to let users try out Bazel without having to manage Bazel version and BUILD files. This feature has been deprecated. For more information, please refer to the migration doc.

Web 跟踪框架集成

Web Tracing Framework integration

Angular 以前支持与 Web 跟踪框架(WTF)集成,用于 Angular 应用程序的性能测试。此集成已经停止维护并失效。因此,该集成在 Angular 版本 8 中被弃用,并且由于没有证据表明在版本 9 中删除了任何现有用法。

Angular previously has supported an integration with the Web Tracing Framework (WTF) for performance testing of Angular applications. This integration has not been maintained and defunct. As a result, the integration was deprecated in Angular version 8 and due to no evidence of any existing usage removed in version 9.

/deep/>>>:ng-deep 组件样式选择器

/deep/, >>> and :ng-deep component style selectors

刺穿 Shadow DOM 的 CSS 组合符已经弃用,并且主要的浏览器和工具都已删除它。因此,在 v4 中,Angular 也弃用了对 /deep/>>>::ng-deep 的支持。在彻底删除它之前,我们首选 ::ng-deep,以便和各种工具实现更广泛的兼容。

The shadow-dom-piercing descendant combinator is deprecated and support is being removed from major browsers and tools. As such, in v4 we deprecated support in Angular for all 3 of /deep/, >>> and ::ng-deep. Until removal, ::ng-deep is preferred for broader compatibility with the tools.

欲知详情,参阅“组件样式”一章中的 /deep/,>>> 和 :: ng-deep

For more information, see /deep/, >>>, and ::ng-deep in the Component Styles guide.

<template> 标签

<template> tag

<template> 标签在 v4 中已经弃用,以消除和 DOM 中同名元素的冲突(比如在使用 Web Components 时)。请用 <ng-template> 代替。欲知详情,参阅预先编译一章。

The <template> tag was deprecated in v4 to avoid colliding with the DOM's element of the same name (such as when using web components). Use <ng-template> instead. For more information, see the Ahead-of-Time Compilation guide.

和响应式表单一起使用 ngModel

ngModel with reactive forms

对于和响应式表单指令一起使用输入属性 ngModel 和事件 ngModelChange 的支持已经在 Angular 6 中弃用,并且会在未来的 Angular 版本中移除。

Support for using the ngModel input property and ngModelChange event with reactive form directives has been deprecated in Angular v6 and will be removed in a future version of Angular.

现在已经弃用:

Now deprecated:

      
      <input [formControl]="control" [(ngModel)]="value">
    
      
      this.value = 'some value';
    

这种弃用有一系列理由。 首先,开发人员会对这种模式感到困惑。它看起来像是在使用 ngModel 指令,但实际上它是响应式表单指令上一个名叫 ngModel 的输入输出属性。它和 ngModel 指令的行为很相似,但又不完全一样。 它运行读取或设置一个值,并且拦截该值的事件,但是 ngModel 的其它特性,比如通过 ngModelOptions 指定更新显示的时机,或者导出该指令,却没法用。

This has been deprecated for several reasons. First, developers have found this pattern confusing. It seems like the actual ngModel directive is being used, but in fact it's an input/output property named ngModel on the reactive form directive that approximates some, but not all, of the directive's behavior. It allows getting and setting a value and intercepting value events, but some of ngModel's other features, such as delaying updates with ngModelOptions or exporting the directive, don't work.

另外,该模式混用了模板驱动和响应式这两种表单策略,这会妨碍我们获取任何一种策略的全部优点。 在模板中设置值的方式,违反了响应式表单所遵循的“模板无关”原则;反之,在类中添加 FormControl/FormGroup 层也破坏了“在模板中定义表单”的约定。

In addition, this pattern mixes template-driven and reactive forms strategies, which prevents taking advantage of the full benefits of either strategy. Setting the value in the template violates the template-agnostic principles behind reactive forms, whereas adding a FormControl/FormGroup layer in the class removes the convenience of defining forms in the template.

要想在它被移除之间修改代码,你需要决定是选定响应式表单指令(以及使用响应式表单模式来存取这些值),还是切换到模板驱动指令。

To update your code before support is removed, you'll want to decide whether to stick with reactive form directives (and get/set values using reactive forms patterns) or switch over to template-driven directives.

改后(选择 1 - 使用响应式表单):

After (choice 1 - use reactive forms):

      
      <input [formControl]="control">
    
      
      this.control.setValue('some value');
    

改后(选择 2 - 使用模板驱动表单):

After (choice 2 - use template-driven forms):

      
      <input [(ngModel)]="value">
    
      
      this.value = 'some value';
    

默认情况下,当使用这种模式时,你会在开发模式下看到一个弃用警告。你可以通过在导入 ReactiveFormsModule 时提供一个配置来来禁用此警告:

By default, when you use this pattern, you will see a deprecation warning once in dev mode. You can choose to silence this warning by providing a config for ReactiveFormsModule at import time:

      
      imports: [
  ReactiveFormsModule.withConfig({warnOnNgModelWithFormControl: 'never'});
]
    

另外,你可以选择针对使用此模式的每个实例来使用配置值 "always" 来为它们单独显示警告。当修改代码时,这可以帮助你跟踪都有哪里使用了该模式。

Alternatively, you can choose to surface a separate warning for each instance of this pattern with a config value of "always". This may help to track down where in the code the pattern is being used as the code is being updated.

ReflectiveInjector

在 v5 中,Angular 用 StaticInjector 代替了 ReflectiveInjector。该注入器不再需要 Reflect 的腻子脚本,对大部分开发人员来说都显著减小了应用的体积。

In v5, Angular replaced the ReflectiveInjector with the StaticInjector. The injector no longer requires the Reflect polyfill, reducing application size for most developers.

之前:

Before:

      
      ReflectiveInjector.resolveAndCreate(providers);
    

之后:

After:

      
      Injector.create({providers});
    

loadChildren 字符串语法

loadChildren string syntax

当 Angular 第一次引入惰性路由时,还没有浏览器能支持动态加载额外的 JavaScript。因此 Angular 创建了自己的方案,所用的语法是 loadChildren: './lazy/lazy.module#LazyModule' 并且还构建了一些工具来支持它。现在,很多浏览器都已支持 ECMAScript 的动态导入,Angular 也正朝着这个新语法前进。

When Angular first introduced lazy routes, there wasn't browser support for dynamically loading additional JavaScript. Angular created our own scheme using the syntax loadChildren: './lazy/lazy.module#LazyModule' and built tooling to support it. Now that ECMAScript dynamic import is supported in many browsers, Angular is moving toward this new syntax.

在第 8 版中,不推荐使用 loadChildren路由规范的字符串语法,loadChildren支持使用基于 import() 的新语法。

In version 8, the string syntax for the loadChildrenroute specification was deprecated, in favor of new syntax that uses import() syntax.

之前:

Before:

      
      const routes: Routes = [{
  path: 'lazy',
  // The following string syntax for loadChildren is deprecated
  loadChildren: './lazy/lazy.module#LazyModule'
}];
    

之后:

After:

      
      const routes: Routes = [{
  path: 'lazy',
  // The new import() syntax
  loadChildren: () => import('./lazy/lazy.module').then(m => m.LazyModule)
}];
    

版本 8 更新:当你升级到版本 8 时,ng update命令会自动执行转换。在版本 7 之前,import() 语法只能在 JIT 模式下运行(和视图引擎一起)。

Version 8 update: When you update to version 8, the ng updatecommand performs the transformation automatically. Prior to version 7, the import() syntax only works in JIT mode (with view engine).

声明语法:遵循路由声明语法 loadChildren: () => import('...').then(m => m.ModuleName) 是很重要的,这样 ngc 才能发现这个惰性加载模块及其相关的 NgModule。你可以在这里找到受支持的语法的完整列表。在 Ivy 发布后会放松这种限制,因为 Ivy 不再用 NgFactories 了。

Declaration syntax: It's important to follow the route declaration syntax loadChildren: () => import('...').then(m => m.ModuleName) to allow ngc to discover the lazy-loaded module and the associated NgModule. You can find the complete list of allowed syntax constructs here. These restrictions will be relaxed with the release of Ivy since it'll no longer use NgFactories.

ActivatedRoute 的 params 和 queryParams 属性

ActivatedRoute params and queryParams properties

ActivatedRoute 包含两个属性,它们的能力低于它们的替代品,在将来的 Angular 版本中可能会弃用。

ActivatedRoute contains two properties that are less capable than their replacements and may be deprecated in a future Angular version.

属性

Property

替代品

Replacement

paramsparamMap
queryParamsqueryParamMap

欲知详情,参阅路由器指南

For more information see the Getting route information section of the Router guide.

在 JIT 模式下对 reflect-metadata 腻子脚本的依赖

Dependency on a reflect-metadata polyfill in JIT mode

Angular 应用程序,特别是依赖于 JIT 编译器的应用程序,过去常常需要 reflect-metadata API 的腻子脚本。

Angular applications, and specifically applications that relied on the JIT compiler, used to require a polyfill for the reflect-metadata APIs.

在 Angular 8.0 版中不再需要这种 polyfill(参阅#14473 ),从而使大多数 Angular 应用程序中都不需要使用这个腻子脚本。因为这个腻子脚本可能由第三方库依赖,所以没有从所有 Angular 项目中删除它,所以我们不建议从 8.0 版本开始再使用这个腻子脚本。这应该能给库作者和应用程序开发人员足够的时间来评估他们是否需要这个腻子脚本,并执行必要的重构以消除对它的依赖。

The need for this polyfill was removed in Angular version 8.0 (see #14473), rendering the presence of the poylfill in most Angular applications unnecessary. Because the polyfill can be depended on by 3rd-party libraries, instead of removing it from all Angular projects, we are deprecating the requirement for this polyfill as of version 8.0. This should give library authors and application developers sufficient time to evaluate if they need the polyfill, and perform any refactoring necessary to remove the dependency on it.

在典型的 Angular 项目中,这个腻子脚本不用于生产版本,因此删除它不会影响生产环境的应用程序。删除它是为了从整体上上简化构建设置并减少外部依赖项的数量。

In a typical Angular project, the polyfill is not used in production builds, so removing it should not impact production applications. The goal behind this removal is overall simplification of the build setup and decrease in the number of external dependencies.

@ViewChild() / @ContentChild() 静态解析为默认值

@ViewChild() / @ContentChild() static resolution as the default

参阅静态查询的专用迁移指南

See the dedicated migration guide for static queries.

@ContentChild() / @Input() 一起使用

@ContentChild() / @Input() used together

以下模式已弃用:

The following pattern is deprecated:

      
      @Input() @ContentChild(TemplateRef) tpl !: TemplateRef<any>;
    

与其使用这种模式,还不如将两个装饰器添加到各自的属性上并添加回退逻辑,如以下范例所示:

Rather than using this pattern, separate the two decorators into their own properties and add fallback logic as in the following example:

      
      @Input() tpl !: TemplateRef<any>;
@ContentChild(TemplateRef) inlineTemplate !: TemplateRef<any>;
    

无法赋值给模板变量

Cannot assign to template variables

在下面的范例中,双向绑定意味着在 valueChange 事件触发时应该写入 optionName

In the following example, the two-way binding means that optionName should be written when the valueChange event fires.

      
      <option *ngFor="let optionName of options" [(value)]="optionName"></option>
    

但实际上,Angular 只是忽略了对模板变量的双向绑定。从版本 8 开始,试图写入模板变量已弃用。在将来的版本中,我们将不支持这种写操作。

However, in practice, Angular simply ignores two-way bindings to template variables. Starting in version 8, attempting to write to template variables is deprecated. In a future version, we will throw to indicate that the write is not supported.

      
      <option *ngFor="let optionName of options" [value]="optionName"></option>
    

platform-server 中绑定到 innerText

Binding to innerText in platform-server

在服务器端渲染中使用的 Domino 不支持 innerText,因此在平台服务器中的 “domino 适配器”中,如果尝试绑定到 innerText,则有一些特殊代码可以退回到 textContent

Domino, which is used in server-side rendering, doesn't support innerText, so in platform-server's "domino adapter", there was special code to fall back to textContent if you tried to bind to innerText.

这两个属性有细微的差异,切换到 textContent 可能会让用户感到惊讶。因此,我们弃用了此行为。展望未来,用户应该在使用 Domino 时显式绑定到 textContent

These two properties have subtle differences, so switching to textContent under the hood can be surprising to users. For this reason, we are deprecating this behavior. Going forward, users should explicitly bind to textContent when using Domino.

wtfStartTimeRange 和所有 wtf* API

wtfStartTimeRange and all wtf* APIs

所有 wtf* API 均已弃用,并将在以后的版本中删除。

All of the wtf* APIs are deprecated and will be removed in a future version.

不再需要 entryComponentsANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS

entryComponents and ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS no longer required

以前,NgModule 定义中的 entryComponents 数组用于告诉编译器将动态创建和插入哪些组件。改用 Ivy 后,将不再需要它们,并且可以从现有模块声明中删除 entryComponents 数组。ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS 注入令牌也是如此。

Previously, the entryComponents array in the NgModule definition was used to tell the compiler which components would be created and inserted dynamically. With Ivy, this isn't a requirement anymore and the entryComponents array can be removed from existing module declarations. The same applies to the ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS injection token.

不带泛型的 ModuleWithProviders 类型

ModuleWithProviders type without a generic

一些 Angular 库,例如 @angular/router@ngrx/store,实现了一种返回 ModuleWithProviders 类型的 API(通常借助名为 forRoot() 的方法)。此类型表示 NgModule 以及其它服务提供者。Angular 版本 9 不建议使用不带显式泛型类型的 ModuleWithProviders,泛型类型是指 NgModule 的类型。在 Angular 的未来版本中,泛型将不再是可选的。

Some Angular libraries, such as @angular/router and @ngrx/store, implement APIs that return a type called ModuleWithProviders (typically via a method named forRoot()). This type represents an NgModule along with additional providers. Angular version 9 deprecates use of ModuleWithProviders without an explicitly generic type, where the generic type refers to the type of the NgModule. In a future version of Angular, the generic will no longer be optional.

如果你使用的是 CLI,则 ng update 应该会自动迁移代码。如果没有使用 CLI,则可以将任何缺失的泛型类型手动添加到应用程序中。例如:

If you're using the CLI, ng update should migrate your code automatically. If you're not using the CLI, you can add any missing generic types to your application manually. For example:

之前

Before

      
      @NgModule({...})
export class MyModule {
  static forRoot(config: SomeConfig): ModuleWithProviders {
    return {
      ngModule: SomeModule,
      providers: [
        {provide: SomeConfig, useValue: config}
      ]
    };
  }
}
    

After

      
      @NgModule({...})
export class MyModule {
  static forRoot(config: SomeConfig): ModuleWithProviders<SomeModule> {
    return {
      ngModule: SomeModule,
      providers: [
        {provide: SomeConfig, useValue: config }
      ]
    };
  }
}
    

WrappedValue

WrappedValue 的目的是让同一个对象实例被视为不同的对象,以便进行变更检测。比如当 Observable 生成相同实例的时候,它常用于 async 管道。

The purpose of WrappedValue is to allow the same object instance to be treated as different for the purposes of change detection. It is commonly used with the async pipe in the case where the Observable produces the same instance of the value.

鉴于此用例相对较少,并且特殊处理会影响应用性能,因此我们已在第 10 版中弃用它。这项弃用并没有提供替代方案。

Given that this use case is relatively rare and special handling impacts application performance, we have deprecated it in v10. No replacement is planned for this deprecation.

如果你要依赖同一个对象实例引起变更检测的行为,那么有两个选择:

If you rely on the behavior that the same object instance should cause change detection, you have two options:

Internet Explorer 11

Angular 对 IE11 的支持已经弃用,将会在 Angular v13 中移除。 结束对 IE11 的支持,可以让 Angular 从那些只出现在长青浏览器中的 Web 平台 API 中受益,为开发人员带来更好地 API,并为应用的用户提供更多的能力。 本次移除还有一个动机在于全球范围内 IE11 的使用率已经只有 ~1%(2021年3月)。关于这次弃用的全部论证和讨论,参见 RFC: Internet Explorer 11 support deprecation and removal

Angular support for Microsoft's Internet Explorer 11 (IE11) is deprecated and will be removed in Angular v13. Ending IE11 support allows Angular to take advantage of web platform APIs present only in evergreen browsers, resulting in better APIs for developers and more capabilities for application users. An additional motivation behind this removal is the drop in global usage of IE11 to just ~1% (as of March 2021). For full rationale and discussion behind this deprecation see RFC: Internet Explorer 11 support deprecation and removal.

*注意:Angular v12 的 LTS 版本将会继续支持 IE11,一直到 2022 年 11 月。

Note: IE11 will be supported in Angular v12 LTS releases through November 2022.

弃用的 CLI API 和选项

Deprecated CLI APIs and Options

这部分包含一个当前弃用的 CLI 标志的完整列表。

This section contains a complete list all of the currently deprecated CLI flags.

@angular-devkit/build-angular

API/选项

API/Option

可能删除于

May be removed in

备注

Notes

i18nFilev11
extractCssv13

不需要在开发期间禁用 CSS 抽取。

No longer required to disable CSS extraction during development.

i18nFormatv12

格式现在是自动检测的。

Format is now automatically detected.

i18nLocalev12

版本 9 和更高版本中新的本地化选项

New localization option in version 9 and later.

hmrWarningv13

已无效果

No longer has an effect.

servePathDefaultWarningv13

已无效果。

No longer has an effect.

@schematics/angular

API /选项

API/Option

可能删除于

May be removed in

备注

Notes

lintFixv12

作为 TSLint 的一部分而被弃用。

Deprecated as part of TSLint deprecation.

删除的 API

Removed APIs

下列 API 已从 11.0.0* 版本开始移除:

The following APIs have been removed starting with version 11.0.0*:

Package

API

替代品

Replacement

备注

Notes

@angular/routerpreserveQueryParamsqueryParamsHandling

要查看版本 10 中移除的 API,请查看版本 10 文档站上本指南

*To see APIs removed in version 10, check out this guide on the version 10 docs site.

@angular/* npm 软件包中的 esm5fesm5 代码格式

esm5 and fesm5 code formats in @angular/* npm packages

从 Angular v8 开始,CLI 就主要使用通过 @angular/* 系列 npm 包分发的 fesm2015 变体代码。这就让 esm5fesm5 的发行版变得过时和不必要,只会增加软件包大小并拖累 npm 的安装速度。

As of Angular v8, the CLI primarily consumes the fesm2015 variant of the code distributed via @angular/* npm packages. This renders the esm5 and fesm5 distributions obsolete and unnecessary, adding bloat to the package size and slowing down npm installations.

移除它们不会对 CLI 用户产生任何影响,除非他们修改了自己的构建配置以显式使用代码的这些发行版。

This removal has no impact on CLI users, unless they modified their build configuration to explicitly consume these code distributions.

任何仍依赖 esm5fesm5 作为其构建系统输入的应用程序都需要确保构建管道能够接受符合 ECMAScript 2015(ES2015) 语言规范的 JavaScript 代码。

Any application still relying on the esm5 and fesm5 as the input to its build system will need to ensure that the build pipeline is capable of accepting JavaScript code conforming to ECMAScript 2015 (ES2015) language specification.

请注意,此更改不会使以这种格式分发的现有库与 Angular CLI 不兼容。如果其它发行版不可用,CLI 将回退并以不太理想的格式使用库。但是,我们确实建议库以 ES2015 格式发布其代码,以加快构建速度并减小构建输出。

Note that this change doesn't make existing libraries distributed in this format incompatible with the Angular CLI. The CLI will fall back and consume libraries in less desirable formats if others are not available. However, we do recommend that libraries ship their code in ES2015 format in order to make builds faster and build output smaller.

实际上,所有 @angular 软件包的 package.json 都将以如下方式更改:

In practical terms, the package.json of all @angular packages has changed in the following way:

之前

Before:

      
      {
  "name": "@angular/core",
  "version": "9.0.0",
  "main": "./bundles/core.umd.js",
  "module": "./fesm5/core.js",
  "es2015": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  "esm5": "./esm5/core.js",
  "esm2015": "./esm2015/core.js",
  "fesm5": "./fesm5/core.js",
  "fesm2015": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  ...
}
    

之后

After:

      
      {
  "name": "@angular/core",
  "version": "10.0.0",
  "main": "./bundles/core.umd.js",
  "module": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  "es2015": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  "esm2015": "./esm2015/core.js",
  "fesm2015": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  ...
}
    

关于 npm 软件包格式的更多信息,请参阅 Angular 软件包格式规范

For more information about the npm package format, see the Angular Package Format spec.

[style][style.prop] 绑定的样式无害化

Style Sanitization for [style] and [style.prop] bindings

Angular 会清理 [style][style.prop] 绑定,以防止恶意代码通过 CSS url() 条目中的 javascript: 表达式进行插入。但是,大多数现代浏览器都已不再支持这些表达式的使用,所以这种清理只对 IE 6 和 7 才有意义。鉴于 Angular 不支持 IE 6 或 7,并且这种清理有性能代价,因此我们将不再清理 Angular 版本 10 中的样式绑定。

Angular used to sanitize [style] and [style.prop] bindings to prevent malicious code from being inserted through javascript: expressions in CSS url() entries. However, most modern browsers no longer support the usage of these expressions, so sanitization was only maintained for the sake of IE 6 and 7. Given that Angular does not support either IE 6 or 7 and sanitization has a performance cost, we will no longer sanitize style bindings as of version 10 of Angular.