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弃用的 API 和特性

Deprecated APIs and features

Angular 力图兼顾创新与稳定。但有时,API 和特性已经过时,需要进行删除或替换,以便 Angular 可以及时跟上新的最佳实践、依赖项变更或者 Web 平台自身的变化。

Angular strives to balance innovation and stability. Sometimes, APIs and features become obsolete and need to be removed or replaced so that Angular can stay current with new best practices, changing dependencies, or changes in the (web) platform itself.

为了让这些转换变得尽可能简单,我们会在删除 API 和特性之前先弃用它们一段时间。让你有时间把应用更新到最新的 API 和最佳实践。

To make these transitions as easy as possible, we deprecate APIs and features for a period of time before removing them. This gives you time to update your apps to the latest APIs and best practices.

本指南包含了当前不推荐使用的所有 Angular API 和特性的汇总表。

This guide contains a summary of all Angular APIs and features that are currently deprecated.

v6 或更早版本中已弃用的特性和 API 将会在版本 9 或更高级版本中删除。要了解 Angular 中关于弃用和删除的实践,参见Angular 发布实践

Features and APIs that were deprecated in v6 or earlier are candidates for removal in version 9 or any later major version. For information about Angular's deprecation and removal practices, see Angular Release Practices.

有关如何更新到最新 Angular 版本的分步说明,参见 update.angular.io 上的交互式更新指南。

For step-by-step instructions on how to update to the latest Angular release, use the interactive update guide at update.angular.io.

索引

Index

为了帮助您确保应用程序的前瞻性,下表列出了所有已弃用的 API 和功能,这些 API 和功能按发行版进行组织,它们将被删除。每个条目都链接到本指南后面的部分,该部分描述了弃用原因和替换选项。

To help you future-proof your apps, the following table lists all deprecated APIs and features, organized by the release in which they are candidates for removal. Each item is linked to the section later in this guide that describes the deprecation reason and replacement options.

区域

Area

API 或特性

API or Feature

可能会在什么时候移除

May be removed in

@angular/commonReflectiveInjectorv10
@angular/commonCurrencyPipe - DEFAULT_CURRENCY_CODEv11
@angular/coreCollectionChangeRecordv10
@angular/coreDefaultIterableDifferv10
@angular/coreReflectiveKeyv10
@angular/coreRenderComponentTypev10
@angular/coreViewEncapsulation.Nativev10
@angular/core

不带泛型的 ModuleWithProviders

ModuleWithProviders without a generic

v10

v10

@angular/core

使用 Angular 特性的不带装饰器的基类

Undecorated base classes that use Angular features

v10

v10

@angular/forms

响应式表单中的 ngModel

ngModel with reactive forms

v10

v10

@angular/routerpreserveQueryParamsv10
@angular/upgrade@angular/upgradev10
@angular/upgradegetAngularLibv10
@angular/upgradesetAngularLibv10
@angular/platform-webworker

所有入口点

All entry points

v10 

v10

模板语法

template syntax

<template>

<template >

v10

v10

腻子脚本

polyfills

reflect-metadata

v10

v10

npm 软件包格式

npm package format

@angular/* npm 软件包中的 esm5fesm5 入口点

esm5 and fesm5 entry-points in @angular/* npm packages

v10

v10

@angular/coredefineInjectablev11
@angular/coreentryComponentsv11
@angular/coreANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTSv11
@angular/router

loadChildren 字符串语法

loadChildren string syntax

v11

v11

@angular/core/testingTestBed.getv12
@angular/router

ActivatedRoute 参数和 queryParams 属性

ActivatedRoute params and queryParams properties

未定

unspecified

模板语法

template syntax

/deep/>>>::ng-deep

/deep/, >>>, and ::ng-deep

未定

unspecified

已弃用的 API

Deprecated APIs

本节包含所有当前已弃用的 API 的完整列表,其中包含一些可帮助你规划如何迁移到其替代品的详细信息。

This section contains a complete list all of the currently-deprecated APIs, with details to help you plan your migration to a replacement.

提示:在本文档站的 API参考手册部分,不推荐使用的 API 会用删除线标记出来。你可以按状态: 已弃用来过滤 API 列表。

Tip: In the API reference section of this doc site, deprecated APIs are indicated by strikethrough. You can filter the API list by Status: deprecated.

@angular/common

APIReplacementDeprecation announcedNotes
CurrencyPipe - DEFAULT_CURRENCY_CODE{provide: DEFAULT_CURRENCY_CODE, useValue: 'USD'}v9

从 v11 开始,默认代码将从由 LOCAL_ID 提供的语言环境数据中提取,而不再是固定值 USD

From v11 the default code will be extracted from the locale data given by LOCAL_ID, rather than USD.

@angular/core

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

CollectionChangeRecordIterableChangeRecordv4

none

DefaultIterableDiffer

不适用

n/a

v4

不属于公共API。

Not part of public API.

ReflectiveInjectorInjector.createv5

参见 ReflectiveInjector

See ReflectiveInjector

ReflectiveKey

none

v5

none

ViewEncapsulation.NativeViewEncapsulation.ShadowDomv6

使用渲染器的原生封装机制。参见 view.ts。

Use the native encapsulation mechanism of the renderer. See view.ts.

defineInjectableɵɵdefineInjectablev8

仅在生成的代码中使用。任何源代码都不应依赖此API。

Used only in generated code. No source code should depend on this API.

entryComponents

none

v9

参见 entryComponents

See entryComponents

ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS

none

v9

参见 ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS

See ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS

不带泛型的ModuleWithProviders

ModuleWithProviders without a generic

带泛型的 ModuleWithProviders

ModuleWithProviders with a generic

v9

参见 ModuleWithProviders部分

See ModuleWithProviders section

使用 Angular 功能的不带装饰器的基类

Undecorated base classes that use Angular features

具有 Angular 功能的带 @Directive() 装饰器的基类

Base classes with @Directive() decorator that use Angular features

v9

请参见不带装饰器的基类部分

See undecorated base classes section

@angular/core/testing

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

TestBed.getTestBed.injectv9

行为相同,但类型安全。

Same behavior, but type safe.

@angular/forms

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

响应式表单中的 ngModel

ngModel with reactive forms

参见 FormControlDirective 使用说明

See FormControlDirective usage notes

v6

none

@angular/router

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

preserveQueryParamsqueryParamsHandlingv4

none

@angular/platform-webworker

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

所有入口点

All entry points

@angular/upgrade/staticv5

参见从 AngularJS 升级

See Upgrading from AngularJS.

@angular/upgrade

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

所有入口点

All entry points

@angular/upgrade/staticv5

参见 从 AngularJS 升级

See Upgrading from AngularJS.

@angular/upgrade/static

API

替代品

Replacement

宣布弃用

Deprecation announced

备注

Notes

getAngularLibgetAngularJSGlobalv5

参见从 AngularJS 升级

See Upgrading from AngularJS.

setAngularLibsetAngularJSGlobalv5

参见从 AngularJS 升级

See Upgrading from AngularJS.

已弃用的特性

Deprecated features

本节列出了所有当前已弃用的特性,包括模板语法、配置选项,以及前面已弃用的 API 部分未列出的其它弃用。它还包括已弃用的 API 用例或 API 组合,以增强上述信息。

This section lists all of the currently-deprecated features, which includes template syntax, configuration options, and any other deprecations not listed in the Deprecated APIs section above. It also includes deprecated API usage scenarios or API combinations, to augment the information above.

Web 跟踪框架集成

Web Tracing Framework integration

Angular 以前支持与 Web 跟踪框架(WTF)集成,用于 Angular 应用程序的性能测试。此集成已经停止维护并失效。因此,该集成在 Angular 版本 8 中被弃用,并且由于没有证据表明在版本 9 中删除了任何现有用法。

Angular previously has supported an integration with the Web Tracing Framework (WTF) for performance testing of Angular applications. This integration has not been maintained and defunct. As a result, the integration was deprecated in Angular version 8 and due to no evidence of any existing usage removed in version 9.

/deep/>>>:ng-deep 组件样式选择器

/deep/, >>> and :ng-deep component style selectors

刺穿 Shadow DOM 的 CSS 组合符已经弃用,并且主要的浏览器和工具都已删除它。因此,在 v4 中,Angular 也弃用了对 /deep/>>>::ng-deep 的支持。在彻底删除它之前,我们首选::ng-deep ,以便和各种工具实现更广泛的兼容。

The shadow-dom-piercing descendant combinator is deprecated and support is being removed from major browsers and tools. As such, in v4 we deprecated support in Angular for all 3 of /deep/, >>> and ::ng-deep. Until removal, ::ng-deep is preferred for broader compatibility with the tools.

欲知详情,参阅“组件样式”一章中的 /deep/,>>> 和 :: ng-deep

For more information, see /deep/, >>>, and ::ng-deep in the Component Styles guide.

<template> tag

<template> 标签在 v4 中已经弃用,以消除和 DOM 中同名元素的冲突(比如在使用 Web Components 时)。请用 <ng-template> 代替。欲知详情,参见预先编译一章。

The <template> tag was deprecated in v4 to avoid colliding with the DOM's element of the same name (such as when using web components). Use <ng-template> instead. For more information, see the Ahead-of-Time Compilation guide.

和响应式表单一起使用 ngModel

ngModel with reactive forms

版本 6 中已弃用:和响应式表单指令一起使用 ngModelngModelChange

Support for using the ngModel input property and ngModelChange event with reactive form directives was deprecated in version 6.

欲知详情,请参阅 FormControlDirectiveFormControlName的用法说明部分。

For more information, see the usage notes for FormControlDirectiveand FormControlName.

ReflectiveInjector

在 v5 中,Angular 用 StaticInjector 代替了 ReflectiveInjector。该注入器不再需要 Reflect 的腻子脚本,对大部分开发人员来说都显著减小了应用的体积。

In v5, Angular replaced the ReflectiveInjector with the StaticInjector. The injector no longer requires the Reflect polyfill, reducing application size for most developers.

之前:

Before:

ReflectiveInjector.resolveAndCreate(providers);
      
      ReflectiveInjector.resolveAndCreate(providers);
    

之后:

After:

Injector.create({providers});
      
      Injector.create({providers});
    

loadChildren 字符串语法

loadChildren string syntax

当 Angular 第一次引入惰性路由时,还没有浏览器能支持动态加载额外的 JavaScript。因此 Angular 创建了自己的方案,所用的语法是 loadChildren: './lazy/lazy.module#LazyModule' 并且还构建了一些工具来支持它。现在,很多浏览器都已支持 ECMAScript 的动态导入,Angular 也正朝着这个新语法前进。

When Angular first introduced lazy routes, there wasn't browser support for dynamically loading additional JavaScript. Angular created our own scheme using the syntax loadChildren: './lazy/lazy.module#LazyModule' and built tooling to support it. Now that ECMAScript dynamic import is supported in many browsers, Angular is moving toward this new syntax.

在第 8 版中,不推荐使用 loadChildren路由规范的字符串语法,loadChildren支持使用基于 import() 的新语法。

In version 8, the string syntax for the loadChildrenroute specification was deprecated, in favor of new syntax that uses import() syntax.

之前:

Before:

const routes: Routes = [{ path: 'lazy', // The following string syntax for loadChildren is deprecated loadChildren: './lazy/lazy.module#LazyModule' }];
      
      const routes: Routes = [{
  path: 'lazy',
  // The following string syntax for loadChildren is deprecated
  loadChildren: './lazy/lazy.module#LazyModule'
}];
    

之后:

After:

const routes: Routes = [{ path: 'lazy', // The new import() syntax loadChildren: () => import('./lazy/lazy.module').then(m => m.LazyModule) }];
      
      const routes: Routes = [{
  path: 'lazy',
  // The new import() syntax
  loadChildren: () => import('./lazy/lazy.module').then(m => m.LazyModule)
}];
    

版本 8 更新:当你升级到版本 8 时,ng update命令会自动执行转换。在版本 7 之前,import() 语法只能在 JIT 模式下运行(和视图引擎一起)。

Version 8 update: When you update to version 8, the ng updatecommand performs the transformation automatically. Prior to version 7, the import() syntax only works in JIT mode (with view engine).

声明语法:遵循路由声明语法 loadChildren: () => import('...').then(m => m.ModuleName) 是很重要的,这样 ngc 才能发现这个惰性加载模块及其相关的 NgModule。你可以在这里找到受支持的语法的完整列表。在 Ivy 发布后会放松这种限制,因为 Ivy 不再用 NgFactories 了。

Declaration syntax: It's important to follow the route declaration syntax loadChildren: () => import('...').then(m => m.ModuleName) to allow ngc to discover the lazy-loaded module and the associated NgModule. You can find the complete list of allowed syntax constructs here. These restrictions will be relaxed with the release of Ivy since it'll no longer use NgFactories.

ActivatedRoute 的 params 和 queryParams 属性

ActivatedRoute params and queryParams properties

ActivatedRoute 包含两个属性 ,它们的能力低于它们的替代品,在将来的 Angular 版本中可能会弃用。

ActivatedRoute contains two properties that are less capable than their replacements and may be deprecated in a future Angular version.

属性

Property

替代品

Replacement

paramsparamMap
queryParamsqueryParamMap

欲知详情,参见路由器指南

For more information see the Router guide.

在 JIT 模式下对 reflect-metadata 腻子脚本的依赖

Dependency on a reflect-metadata polyfill in JIT mode

Angular 应用程序,特别是依赖于 JIT 编译器的应用程序,过去常常需要 reflect-metadata API 的腻子脚本。

Angular applications, and specifically applications that relied on the JIT compiler, used to require a polyfill for the reflect-metadata APIs.

在 Angular 8.0 版中不再需要这种 polyfill(参见#14473 ),从而使大多数 Angular 应用程序中都不需要使用这个腻子脚本。因为这个腻子脚本可能由第三方库依赖,所以没有从所有 Angular 项目中删除它,所以我们不建议从 8.0 版本开始再使用这个腻子脚本。这应该能给库作者和应用程序开发人员足够的时间来评估他们是否需要这个腻子脚本,并执行必要的重构以消除对它的依赖。

The need for this polyfill was removed in Angular version 8.0 (see #14473), rendering the presence of the poylfill in most Angular applications unnecessary. Because the polyfill can be depended on by 3rd-party libraries, instead of removing it from all Angular projects, we are deprecating the requirement for this polyfill as of version 8.0. This should give library authors and application developers sufficient time to evaluate if they need the polyfill, and perform any refactoring necessary to remove the dependency on it.

在典型的 Angular 项目中,这个腻子脚本不用于生产版本,因此删除它不会影响生产环境的应用程序。删除它是为了从整体上上简化构建设置并减少外部依赖项的数量。

In a typical Angular project, the polyfill is not used in production builds, so removing it should not impact production applications. The goal behind this removal is overall simplification of the build setup and decrease in the number of external dependencies.

@ViewChild() / @ContentChild() 静态解析为默认值

@ViewChild() / @ContentChild() static resolution as the default

参见[静态查询的专用迁移指南

See the dedicated migration guide for static queries.

@ContentChild() / @Input() 一起使用

@ContentChild() / @Input() used together

以下模式已弃用:

The following pattern is deprecated:

      
      @Input() @ContentChild(TemplateRef) tpl !: TemplateRef<any>;
    

与其使用这种模式,还不如将两个装饰器添加到各自的属性上并添加回退逻辑,如以下示例所示:

Rather than using this pattern, separate the two decorators into their own properties and add fallback logic as in the following example:

@Input() tpl !: TemplateRef<any>; @ContentChild(TemplateRef) inlineTemplate !: TemplateRef<any>;
      
      @Input() tpl !: TemplateRef<any>;
@ContentChild(TemplateRef) inlineTemplate !: TemplateRef<any>;
    

无法赋值给模板变量

Cannot assign to template variables

在下面的示例中,双向绑定意味着在 valueChange 事件触发时应该写入 optionName

In the following example, the two-way binding means that optionName should be written when the valueChange event fires.

<option *ngFor="let optionName of options" [(value)]="optionName"></option>
      
      <option *ngFor="let optionName of options" [(value)]="optionName"></option>
    

但实际上,Angular 只是忽略了对模板变量的双向绑定。从版本 8 开始,试图写入模板变量已弃用。在将来的版本中,我们将不支持这种写操作。

However, in practice, Angular simply ignores two-way bindings to template variables. Starting in version 8, attempting to write to template variables is deprecated. In a future version, we will throw to indicate that the write is not supported.

<option *ngFor="let optionName of options" [value]="optionName"></option>
      
      <option *ngFor="let optionName of options" [value]="optionName"></option>
    

使用 Angular 特性的不带修饰器的基类

Undecorated base classes using Angular features

从版本 9 开始,不推荐使用不带装饰器的基类:

As of version 9, it's deprecated to have an undecorated base class that:

  • 使用 Angular 特性

    uses Angular features

  • 被指令或组件扩展(extends)

    is extended by a directive or component

Angular 生命周期钩子或以下任何 Angular 字段装饰器均视为 Angular 特性:

Angular lifecycle hooks or any of the following Angular field decorators are considered Angular features:

例如,以下写法已弃用,因为基类使用了 @Input() 并且没有带类级装饰器:

For example, the following case is deprecated because the base class uses @Input() and does not have a class-level decorator:

class Base { @Input() foo: string; } @Directive(...) class Dir extends Base { ngOnChanges(): void { // notified when bindings to [foo] are updated } }
      
      class Base {
  @Input()
  foo: string;
}

@Directive(...)
class Dir extends Base {
  ngOnChanges(): void {
    // notified when bindings to [foo] are updated
  }
}
    

在将来的 Angular 版本中,此代码将会引发错误。要解决此示例,请将无选择器的 @Directive() 装饰器添加到基类上:

In a future version of Angular, this code will start to throw an error. To fix this example, add a selectorless @Directive() decorator to the base class:

@Directive() class Base { @Input() foo: string; } @Directive(...) class Dir extends Base { ngOnChanges(): void { // notified when bindings to [foo] are updated } }
      
      @Directive()
class Base {
  @Input()
  foo: string;
}

@Directive(...)
class Dir extends Base {
  ngOnChanges(): void {
    // notified when bindings to [foo] are updated
  }
}
    

在版本 9 中,CLI 具有自动迁移功能,它将在运行 ng update 时为您更新代码。有关更改的更多信息和更多示例,请参见专用的迁移指南

In version 9, the CLI has an automated migration that will update your code for you when ng update is run. See the dedicated migration guide for more information about the change and more examples.

platform-server 中绑定到 innerText

Binding to innerText in platform-server

在服务器端渲染中使用的 Domino 不支持innerText,因此在平台服务器中的 “domino适配器”中,如果尝试绑定到 innerText,则有一些特殊代码可以退回到 textContent

Domino, which is used in server-side rendering, doesn't support innerText, so in platform-server's "domino adapter", there was special code to fall back to textContent if you tried to bind to innerText.

这两个属性有细微的差异,切换到 textContent 可能会让用户感到惊讶。因此,我们弃用了此行为。展望未来,用户应该在使用 Domino 时显式绑定到 textContent

These two properties have subtle differences, so switching to textContent under the hood can be surprising to users. For this reason, we are deprecating this behavior. Going forward, users should explicitly bind to textContent when using Domino.

wtfStartTimeRange 和所有 wtf* API

wtfStartTimeRange and all wtf* APIs

所有 wtf* API均已弃用,并将在以后的版本中删除。

All of the wtf* APIs are deprecated and will be removed in a future version.

在 Platform-Webworker 中运行 Angular 应用程序

Running Angular applications in platform-webworker

@angular/platform-* 软件包使 Angular 可以在不同的上下文中运行。例如,@angular/platform-server 使 Angular 可以在服务器上运行,而 @angular/platform-browser 使 Angular 可以在 Web 浏览器中运行。

The @angular/platform-* packages enable Angular to be run in different contexts. For examples, @angular/platform-server enables Angular to be run on the server, and @angular/platform-browser enables Angular to be run in a web browser.

@angular/platform-webworker 是在 Angular 版本 2 中引入的,@angular/platform-webworker 是利用 Angular 的渲染体系结构在 Web Worker 中运行整个Web应用程序的实验。我们从这个实验中学到了很多,得出的结论是,对于大多数应用程序来说,在 Web Worker 中运行整个应用程序不是最佳策略。

@angular/platform-webworker was introduced in Angular version 2 as an experiment in leveraging Angular's rendering architecture to run an entire web application in a web worker. We've learned a lot from this experiment and have come to the conclusion that running the entire application in a web worker is not the best strategy for most applications.

展望未来,我们将专注于与 Web Worker 相关的工作,围绕它们的主要用例来分担初始渲染所需的 CPU 密集型非关键工作(例如内存中搜索和图像处理)。在 Angular CLI 中使用 Web Worker 指南中了解更多信息。

Going forward, we will focus our efforts related to web workers around their primary use case of offloading CPU-intensive, non-critical work needed for initial rendering (such as in-memory search and image processing). Learn more in the guide to Using Web Workers with the Angular CLI.

从 Angular 8 版开始,所有 platform-webworker API均已弃用。这包括两个软件包:@angular/platform-webworker@angular/platform-webworker-dynamic

As of Angular version 8, all platform-webworker APIs are deprecated. This includes both packages: @angular/platform-webworker and @angular/platform-webworker-dynamic.

不再需要 entryComponentsANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS

entryComponents and ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS no longer required

以前,NgModule 定义中的 entryComponents 数组用于告诉编译器将动态创建和插入哪些组件。改用 Ivy 后,将不再需要它们,并且可以从现有模块声明中删除 entryComponents 数组。ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS 注入令牌也是如此。

Previously, the entryComponents array in the NgModule definition was used to tell the compiler which components would be created and inserted dynamically. With Ivy, this isn't a requirement anymore and the entryComponents array can be removed from existing module declarations. The same applies to the ANALYZE_FOR_ENTRY_COMPONENTS injection token.

不带泛型的 ModuleWithProviders 类型

ModuleWithProviders type without a generic

一些 Angular 库,例如 @angular/router@ngrx/store,实现了一种返回 ModuleWithProviders 类型的 API(通常借助名为 forRoot() 的方法)。此类型表示 NgModule 以及其它服务提供商。 Angular 版本 9 不建议使用不带显式泛型类型的 ModuleWithProviders,泛型类型是指 NgModule 的类型。在 Angular 的未来版本中,泛型将不再是可选的。

Some Angular libraries, such as @angular/router and @ngrx/store, implement APIs that return a type called ModuleWithProviders (typically via a method named forRoot()). This type represents an NgModule along with additional providers. Angular version 9 deprecates use of ModuleWithProviders without an explicitly generic type, where the generic type refers to the type of the NgModule. In a future version of Angular, the generic will no longer be optional.

如果您使用的是 CLI,则 ng update 应该会自动迁移代码。如果没有使用 CLI,则可以将任何缺失的泛型类型手动添加到应用程序中。例如:

If you're using the CLI, ng update should migrate your code automatically. If you're not using the CLI, you can add any missing generic types to your application manually. For example:

之前

Before

@NgModule({...}) export class MyModule { static forRoot(config: SomeConfig): ModuleWithProviders { return { ngModule: SomeModule, providers: [ {provide: SomeConfig, useValue: config} ] }; } }
      
      @NgModule({...})
export class MyModule {
  static forRoot(config: SomeConfig): ModuleWithProviders {
    return {
      ngModule: SomeModule,
      providers: [
        {provide: SomeConfig, useValue: config}
      ]
    };
  }
}
    

After

@NgModule({...}) export class MyModule { static forRoot(config: SomeConfig): ModuleWithProviders<SomeModule> { return { ngModule: SomeModule, providers: [ {provide: SomeConfig, useValue: config } ] }; } }
      
      @NgModule({...})
export class MyModule {
  static forRoot(config: SomeConfig): ModuleWithProviders<SomeModule> {
    return {
      ngModule: SomeModule,
      providers: [
        {provide: SomeConfig, useValue: config }
      ]
    };
  }
}
    

@angular/* npm 软件包中的 esm5fesm5 代码格式

esm5 and fesm5 code formats in @angular/* npm packages

从 Angular v8 开始,CLI 主要使用通过 @angular/* npm 包分发的 fesm2015 变体代码。这使得 esm5fesm5 发行版变得过时和不必要,增加包的大小,并降低了 npm 的安装速度。

As of Angular v8, the CLI primarily consumes the fesm2015 variant of the code distributed via @angular/* npm packages. This renders the esm5 and fesm5 distributions obsolete and unnecessary, adding bloat to the package size and slowing down npm installations.

将来删除此发行版将不会对 CLI 用户产生任何影响,除非他们修改了自己的构建配置以显式使用这些代码发行版。

The future removal of this distribution will have no impact on CLI users, unless they modified their build configuration to explicitly consume these code distributions.

任何仍依赖 esm5fesm5 作为其构建系统输入的应用程序都需要确保构建管道能够接受符合 ECMAScript 2015(ES2015) 语言规范的 JavaScript 代码。

Any application still relying on the esm5 and fesm5 as the input to its build system will need to ensure that the build pipeline is capable of accepting JavaScript code conforming to ECMAScript 2015 (ES2015) language specification.

请注意,此更改不会使以这种格式分发的现有库与 Angular CLI 不兼容。如果其他发行版不可用,CLI 将回退并以不太理想的格式使用库。但是,我们确实建议库以 ES2015 格式发布其代码,以加快构建速度并减小构建输出。

Note that this change doesn't make existing libraries distributed in this format incompatible with the Angular CLI. The CLI will fall back and consume libraries in less desirable formats if others are not available. However, we do recommend that libraries ship their code in ES2015 format in order to make builds faster and build output smaller.

实际上,所有 @angular 软件包的 package.json 都将以如下方式更改:

In practical terms, the package.json of all @angular packages will change in the following way:

之前

Before:

{ "name": "@angular/core", "version": "9.0.0", "main": "./bundles/core.umd.js", "module": "./fesm5/core.js", "es2015": "./fesm2015/core.js", "esm5": "./esm5/core.js", "esm2015": "./esm2015/core.js", "fesm5": "./fesm5/core.js", "fesm2015": "./fesm2015/core.js", ... }
      
      {
  "name": "@angular/core",
  "version": "9.0.0",
  "main": "./bundles/core.umd.js",
  "module": "./fesm5/core.js",
  "es2015": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  "esm5": "./esm5/core.js",
  "esm2015": "./esm2015/core.js",
  "fesm5": "./fesm5/core.js",
  "fesm2015": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  ...
}
    

之后

After:

{ "name": "@angular/core", "version": "10.0.0", "main": "./bundles/core.umd.js", "module": "./fesm2015/core.js", "es2015": "./fesm2015/core.js", "esm2015": "./esm2015/core.js", "fesm2015": "./fesm2015/core.js", ... }
      
      {
  "name": "@angular/core",
  "version": "10.0.0",
  "main": "./bundles/core.umd.js",
  "module": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  "es2015": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  "esm2015": "./esm2015/core.js",
  "fesm2015": "./fesm2015/core.js",
  ...
}
    

关于 npm 软件包格式的更多信息,请参见 Angular 软件包格式规范

For more information about the npm package format, see the Angular Package Format spec.

已删除的 API

Removed APIs

从9.0.0*版开始,以下API已被删除:

The following APIs have been removed starting with version 9.0.0*:

Package

API

替代品

Replacement

备注

Notes

@angular/coreRendererRenderer2

迁移指南

Migration guide

@angular/coreRootRendererRendererFactory2

none

@angular/coreRenderComponentTypeRendererType2

none

@angular/coreWtfScopeFn

none

v8

参见 Web 跟踪框架

See Web Tracing Framework

@angular/corewtfCreateScope

none

v8

参见 Web 跟踪框架

See Web Tracing Framework

@angular/corewtfStartTimeRange

none

v8

参见 Web 跟踪框架

See Web Tracing Framework

@angular/corewtfEndTimeRange

none

v8

参见 Web 跟踪框架

See Web Tracing Framework

@angular/corewtfLeave

none

v8

参见 Web 跟踪框架

See Web Tracing Framework

@angular/commonDeprecatedI18NPipesModuleCommonModule

none

@angular/commonDeprecatedCurrencyPipeCurrencyPipe

none

@angular/commonDeprecatedDatePipeDatePipe

none

@angular/commonDeprecatedDecimalPipeDecimalPipe

none

@angular/commonDeprecatedPercentPipePercentPipe

none

@angular/formsNgFormSelectorWarning

none

none

@angular/forms

ngForm 元素选择器

ngForm element selector

ng-form 元素选择器

ng-form element selector

none

@angular/service-workerversionedFilesfiles

在 Service Worker 配置文件 ngsw-config.json 中,用 files 替换 versionedFiles 。参见Service Worker 配置

In the service worker configuration file ngsw-config.json, replace versionedFiles with files. See Service Worker Configuration.

要查看版本 8 中删除的API,请查看版本 8 文档站点上的本指南。

*To see APIs removed in version 8, check out this guide on the version 8 docs site.

@angular/http

已删除了整个 @angular/http包。请改用 @angular/common/http

The entire @angular/httppackage has been removed. Use @angular/common/httpinstead.

新的 API 用一种更小、更简单、更强大的方式来在 Angular 中发起 HTTP 请求。新的 API 简化成了更人性化的默认设计:不用再通过调用 .json() 方法进行映射。它还支持带类型的返回值,以及拦截器。

The new API is a smaller, easier, and more powerful way to make HTTP requests in Angular. The new API simplifies the default ergonomics: There is no need to map by invoking the .json() method. It also supports typed return values and interceptors.

要更新你的应用:

To update your apps:

有关使用 @angular/common/http 的更多信息,请参见 HttpClient 指南

For more information about using @angular/common/http, see the HttpClient guide.

@angular/http

@angular/common/http 中最接近的替代品

Closest replacement in @angular/common/http

BaseRequestOptionsHttpRequest
BaseResponseOptionsHttpResponse
BrowserXhr
ConnectionHttpBackend
ConnectionBackendHttpBackend
CookieXSRFStrategyHttpClientXsrfModule
HeadersHttpHeaders
HttpHttpClient
HttpModuleHttpClientModule
JsonpHttpClient
JSONPBackendJsonpClientBackend
JSONPConnectionJsonpClientBackend
JsonpModuleHttpClientJsonpModule
QueryEncoderHttpUrlEncodingCodec
ReadyStateHttpBackend
RequestHttpRequest
RequestMethodHttpClient
RequestOptionsHttpRequest
RequestOptionsArgsHttpRequest
ResponseHttpResponse
ResponseContentTypeHttpClient
ResponseOptionsHttpResponse
ResponseOptionsArgsHttpResponse
ResponseTypeHttpClient
URLSearchParamsHttpParams
XHRBackendHttpXhrBackend
XHRConnectionHttpXhrBackend
XSRFStrategyHttpClientXsrfModule
@angular/http/testing

@angular/common/http/testing 中最接近的替代品

Closest replacement in @angular/common/http/testing

MockBackendHttpTestingController
MockConnectionHttpTestingController