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工作区与项目文件的结构

Workspace and project file structure

你要在 Angular 工作区的上下文环境中开发应用。每个工作区中包括一个或多个项目的文件。每个项目是一组文件,由标准应用、库或一组端到端(e2e)测试组成。

You develop apps in the context of an Angular workspace. A workspace contains the files for one or more projects. A project is the set of files that comprise a standalone app, a library, or a set of end-to-end (e2e) tests.

Angular CLI 命令 ng new <project_name> 可以帮你开始项目。 当你运行该命令时,CLI 会在新建的工作区(以 project_name 为根目录)中,安装必要的 Angular npm 包和其它依赖。 它还会创建如下的工作区和最初的项目文件:

The Angular CLI command ng new <project_name> gets you started. When you run this command, the CLI installs the necessary Angular npm packages and other dependencies in a new workspace, with a root folder named project_name. It also creates the following workspace and starter project files:

  • 一个初始的骨架应用项目,也叫 project_name(位于 src/ 子目录下)。

    An initial skeleton app project, also called project_name (in the src/ subfolder).

  • 一个端到端测试项目(位于 e2e/ 子目录下)。

    An end-to-end test project (in the e2e/ subfolder).

  • 相关配置文件。

    Related configuration files.

初始的应用项目包含一个简单的 Welcome 应用,随时可以运行。

The initial app project contains a simple Welcome app, ready to run.

工作区文件

Workspace files

工作区的顶级包含一系列工作区级的配置文件。

The top level of the workspace contains a number of workspace-wide configuration files.

工作区配置文件

WORKSPACE CONFIG FILES

用途

PURPOSE

.editorconfig

代码编辑器配置。参见 EditorConfig

Configuration for code editors. See EditorConfig.

.gitignore

指定 Git 要忽略的非跟踪的文件。

Specifies intentionally untracked files that Git should ignore.

angular.json

工作区中所有项目的默认 CLI 配置,包括 CLI 使用的构建选项、运行选项、测试工具选项(比如 TSLintKarmaProtractor)等。欲知详情,参见 Angular 工作区配置

CLI configuration defaults for all projects in the workspace, including configuration options for build, serve, and test tools that the CLI uses, such as TSLint, Karma, and Protractor. For details, see Angular Workspace Configuration.

node_modules

提供给整个工作区的 npm 包

Provides npm packages to the entire workspace.

package.json

配置用于工作区中所有项目的包依赖项。有关此文件的特有格式和内容,参见 npm 文档

Configures npm package dependencies that are available to all projects in the workspace. See npm documentation for the specific format and contents of this file.

package-lock.json

为 npm 客户端安装到 node_modules 中的所有软件包提供版本信息。详情参见 npm documentation。如果你使用 yarn 客户端,此文件会由 yarn.lock 代替。

Provides version information for all packages installed into node_modules by the npm client. See npm documentation for details. If you use the yarn client, this file will be yarn.lock instead.

tsconfig.json

工作区中所有应用的默认 TypeScript 配置。包括 TypeScript 选项和 Angular 模板编译器选项。参见 TypeScript 配置

Default TypeScript configuration for apps in the workspace, including TypeScript and Angular template compiler options. See TypeScript Configuration.

tslint.json

工作区中所有应用的默认 TSLint 配置。

Default TSLint configuration for apps in the workspace.

README.md

介绍文档

Introductory documentation.

工作区中的所有项目都共享这个配置上下文。 每个项目自己的 TypeScript 配置文件继承自工作区级的 tsconfig.*.json,而每个项目自己的 TSLint 配置文件也继承自工作区级的 tslint.json

All projects within a workspace share a CLI configuration context. Project-specific TypeScript configuration files inherit from the workspace-wide tsconfig.*.json, and app-specific TSLint configuration files inherit from the workspace-wide tslint.json.

默认应用工程文件

Default app project files

CLI 命令 ng new my-app 创建了一个名叫 "my-app" 的工作区目录,并生成了一个新应用的骨架。 这个初始应用是 CLI 命令的默认应用(除非你在创建了其它应用之后修改了默认应用)。

The CLI command ng new my-app creates a workspace folder named "my-app" and generates a new app skeleton. This initial app is the default app for CLI commands (unless you change the default after creating additional apps).

新生成的应用包含根模块和一个根组件及其模板的代码。 当工作区的文件结构就绪之后,你可以在命令行上运行 ng generate 命令,来给这个初始应用添加功能和数据。

A newly generated app contains the source files for a root module, with a root component and template. When the workspace file structure is in place, you can use the ng generate command on the command line to add functionality and data to the initial app.

除了在命令行上使用 CLI 之外,你还可以使用像 Angular Console 这样的交互开发环境,或者直接操纵应用的源码目录中的源码文件和配置文件。

Besides using the CLI on the command line, you can also use an interactive development environment like Angular Console, or manipulate files directly in the app's source folder and configuration files.

src/ 子目录包含该初始应用的源文件(应用逻辑、数据和资源)以及配置文件。 工作区级的 node_modules 依赖,对于这个项目也是可见的。

The src/ subfolder contains the source files (app logic, data, and assets), along with configuration files for the initial app. Workspace-wide node_modules dependencies are visible to this project.

应用源码与配置文件

APP SOURCE & CONFIG FILES

用途

PURPOSE

app/

包含组件文件,其中定义了应用逻辑和数据。详情参见稍后的应用源码目录

Contains the component files in which your app logic and data are defined. See details in App source folder below.

assets/

包含图像文件和其它文件,当构建应用时会被原样复制到构建目标中。

Contains image files and other asset files to be copied as-is when you build your application.

environments/

包含针对特定目标环境的配置选项。默认情况下有一个未命名的标准开发环境和一个名叫 "prod" 的产品环境。你可以定义一些额外的目标环境配置。

Contains build configuration options for particular target environments. By default there is an unnamed standard development environment and a production ("prod") environment. You can define additional target environment configurations.

browserslist

browserlist

配置各个目标浏览器和 Node.js 版本之间的市场占有率,供各种前端工具使用。详情参见 GitHub 上的 Browserlist

Configures sharing of target browsers and Node.js versions among various front-end tools. See Browserslist on GitHub for more information.

favicon.ico

一个用在书签栏上的应用图标。

An icon to use for this app in the bookmark bar.

index.html

当有人访问你的应用时给出的主 HTML 文件,你通常不用手动在这里添加任何 <script><link> 标签。

The main HTML page that is served when someone visits your site. The CLI automatically adds all JavaScript and CSS files when building your app, so you typically don't need to add any <script> or<link> tags here manually.

main.ts

应用的主入口点。使用 JIT 编译器编译应用,并引导应用的根模块 AppModule 来运行在浏览器中。你也可以为 CLI 的 buildserve 命令添加 --aot 标志,来使用 AOT 编译器 而不必修改任何代码。

The main entry point for your app. Compiles the application with the JIT compiler and bootstraps the application's root module (AppModule) to run in the browser. You can also use the AOT compiler without changing any code by appending the --aot flag to the CLI build and serve commands.

polyfills.ts

为浏览器支持提供腻子脚本(polyfill)。

Provides polyfill scripts for browser support.

styles.sass

列出为项目提供样式的 CSS 文件。其扩展名和你为项目配置的样式预处理器保持一致。

Lists CSS files that supply styles for a project. The extension reflects the style preprocessor you have configured for the project.

test.ts

单元测试的主入口点,其中带有一些特定于 Angular 的配置。一般来说你不必编辑这个问题。

The main entry point for your unit tests, with some Angular-specific configuration. You don't typically need to edit this file.

tsconfig.app.json

继承自工作区级的 tsconfig.json 文件。

Inherits from the workspace-wide tsconfig.json file.

tsconfig.spec.json

继承自工作区级的 tsconfig.json 文件。

Inherits from the workspace-wide tsconfig.json file.

tslint.json

继承自工作区级的 tsconfig.json 文件。

Inherits from the workspace-wide tslint.json file.

默认应用项目的 e2e 测试文件

Default app project e2e files

e2e/ 子目录包含一组初始应用所对应的端到端测试的配置文件和源文件。

An e2e/ subfolder contains configuration and source files for a set of end-to-end tests that correspond to the initial app. Workspace-wide node_modules dependencies are visible to this project.

my-app/ e2e/ (end-to-end test app for my-app) src/ (app source files) protractor.conf.js (test-tool config) tsconfig.e2e.json (TypeScript config inherits from workspace tsconfig.json)
      
      my-app/
  e2e/                  (end-to-end test app for my-app)
    src/                (app source files)
    protractor.conf.js  (test-tool config)
    tsconfig.e2e.json   (TypeScript config inherits from workspace tsconfig.json)
    

其它应用和库的项目目录

Project folders for additional apps and libraries

当你在工作区中生成新项目时,CLI 会在工作区目录下创建一个新的 /projects 目录,并把生成的文件添加到那里。

When you generate new projects in a workspace, the CLI creates a new workspace/projects folder, and adds the generated files there.

当你生成应用时(ng generate application my-other-app),CLI 会在 /projects 下创建应用及其端到端测试的目录。新生成的库也同样会放在 /projects 目录下。

When you generate an app (ng generate application my-other-app), the CLI adds folders under projects/ for both the app and its corresponding end-to-end tests. Newly generated libraries are also added under projects/.

my-app/ ... projects/ (additional apps and libs) my-other-app/ (a second app) src/ (config files) my-other-app-e2e/ (corresponding test app) src/ (config files) my-lib/ (a generated library) (config files)
      
      my-app/
  ...
  projects/           (additional apps and libs)
    my-other-app/     (a second app)
      src/
      (config files)
    my-other-app-e2e/  (corresponding test app) 
      src/
      (config files)
    my-lib/            (a generated library)
      (config files)
    

应用源码目录

App source folder

src/ 目录下,app/ 目录包含你的应用逻辑和数据。Angular 组件、模板和样式都在这里。 assets/ 子目录包含图片和应用所需的其它文件。src/ 顶层的文件用于支持测试和运行你的应用。

Inside the src/ folder, the app/ folder contains your app's logic and data. Angular components, templates, and styles go here. An assets/ subfolder contains images and anything else your app needs. Files at the top level of src/ support testing and running your app.

应用源文件

APP SOURCE FILES

用途

PURPOSE

app/app.component.ts

定义应用程序根组件(名叫 AppComponent)的逻辑代码。当你往应用中添加组件和服务时,根组件所关联的视图会作为 view hierarchy 视图树的根。

Defines the logic for the app's root component, named AppComponent. The view associated with this root component becomes the root of the view hierarchy as you add components and services to your app.

app/app.component.html

定义与根组件 AppComponent 关联的模板。

Defines the HTML template associated with the root AppComponent.

app/app.component.css

定义根组件 AppComponent 的 CSS 样式表。

Defines the base CSS stylesheet for the root AppComponent.

app/app.component.spec.ts

定义根组件 AppComponent 的单元测试文件。

Defines a unit test for the root AppComponent.

app/app.module.ts

定义根模块(名叫 AppModule),它告诉 Angular 如何组装应用。其初始声明中只有 AppComponent。当你往应用中添加更多组件时,它们必须声明在这里。

Defines the root module, named AppModule, that tells Angular how to assemble the application. Initially declares only the AppComponent. As you add more components to the app, they must be declared here.

assets/*

包含图片文件和其它资源,当构建应用时,它们将被原样复制到目标目录中。

Contains image files and other asset files to be copied as-is when you build your application.