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JavaScript 模块 vs. NgModule

JavaScript modules vs. NgModules

JavaScript 和 Angular 都使用模块来组织代码,虽然它们的组织形式不同,但 Angular 的应用会同时依赖两者。

JavaScript and Angular use modules to organize code, and though they organize it differently, Angular apps rely on both.

JavaScript 模块

JavaScript modules

在 JavaScript 中,模块是内含 JavaScript 代码的独立文件。要让其中的东西可用,你要写一个导出语句,通常会放在相应的代码之后,类似这样:

In JavaScript, modules are individual files with JavaScript code in them. To make what’s in them available, you write an export statement, usually after the relevant code, like this:

export class AppComponent { ... }
      
      export class AppComponent { ... }
    

然后,当你在其它文件中需要这个文件的代码时,要像这样导入它:

Then, when you need that file’s code in another file, you import it like this:

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
      
      import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
    

JavaScript 模块让你能为代码加上命名空间,防止因为全局变量而引起意外。

JavaScript modules help you namespace, preventing accidental global variables.

要了解 JavaScript 模块的更多知识,参见 JavaScript/ECMAScript 模块

For more information on JavaScript modules, see JavaScript/ECMAScript modules.

NgModules

NgModule 是一些带有 @NgModule 装饰器的类。@NgModule 装饰器的 imports 数组会告诉 Angular 哪些其它的 NgModule 是当前模块所需的。 imports 数组中的这些模块与 JavaScript 模块不同,它们都是 NgModule 而不是常规的 JavaScript 模块。 带有 @NgModule 装饰器的类通常会习惯性地放在单独的文件中,但单独的文件并不像 JavaScript 模块那样作为必要条件,而是因为它带有 @NgModule 装饰器及其元数据。

NgModules are classes decorated with @NgModule. The @NgModule decorator’s imports array tells Angular what other NgModules the current module needs. The modules in the imports array are different than JavaScript modules because they are NgModules rather than regular JavaScript modules. Classes with an @NgModule decorator are by convention kept in their own files, but what makes them an NgModule isn’t being in their own file, like JavaScript modules; it’s the presence of @NgModule and its metadata.

Angular CLI 生成的 AppModule 实际演示了这两种模块:

The AppModule generated from the Angular CLI demonstrates both kinds of modules in action:

/* These are JavaScript import statements. Angular doesn’t know anything about these. */ import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser'; import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { AppComponent } from './app.component'; /* The @NgModule decorator lets Angular know that this is an NgModule. */ @NgModule({ declarations: [ AppComponent ], imports: [ /* These are NgModule imports. */ BrowserModule ], providers: [], bootstrap: [AppComponent] }) export class AppModule { }
      
      /* These are JavaScript import statements. Angular doesn’t know anything about these. */
import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';

/* The @NgModule decorator lets Angular know that this is an NgModule. */
@NgModule({
  declarations: [
    AppComponent
  ],
  imports: [     /* These are NgModule imports. */
    BrowserModule
  ],
  providers: [],
  bootstrap: [AppComponent]
})
export class AppModule { }
    

NgModule 类与 JavaScript 模块有下列关键性的不同:

The NgModule classes differ from JavaScript module in the following key ways:

  • NgModule 只绑定了可声明的类,这些可声明的类只是供 Angular 编译器用的。

    An NgModule bounds declarable classes only. Declarables are the only classes that matter to the Angular compiler.

  • 与 JavaScript 类把它所有的成员类都放在一个巨型文件中不同,你要把该模块的类列在它的 @NgModule.declarations 列表中。

    Instead of defining all member classes in one giant file as in a JavaScript module, you list the module's classes in the @NgModule.declarations list.

  • NgModule 只能导出可声明的类。这可能是它自己拥有的也可能是从其它模块中导入的。它不会声明或导出任何其它类型的类。

    An NgModule can only export the declarable classes it owns or imports from other modules. It doesn't declare or export any other kind of class.

  • 与 JavaScript 模块不同,NgModule 可以通过把服务提供商加到 @NgModule.providers 列表中,来用服务扩展整个应用。

    Unlike JavaScript modules, an NgModule can extend the entire application with services by adding providers to the @NgModule.providers list.


关于 NgModule 的更多知识

More on NgModules

要了解关于 NgModule 的更多知识,参见

For more information on NgModules, see: