Reactive Forms

响应式表单

Reactive forms provide a model-driven approach to handling form inputs whose values change over time. This guide shows you how to create and update a simple form control, progress to using multiple controls in a group, validate form values, and implement more advanced forms.

响应式表单提供了一种模型驱动的方式来处理表单输入,其中的值会随时间而变化。本文会向你展示如何创建和更新单个表单控件,然后在一个分组中使用多个控件,验证表单的值,以及如何实现更高级的表单。

Try theReactive Forms live-example.

试试响应式表单的在线例子

Introduction to reactive forms

响应式表单简介

Reactive forms use an explicit and immutable approach to managing the state of a form at a given point in time. Each change to the form state returns a new state, which maintains the integrity of the model between changes. Reactive forms are built around observable streams, where form inputs and values are provided as streams of input values, which can be accessed synchronously.

响应式表单使用显式的、不可变的方式,管理表单在特定的时间点上的状态。对表单状态的每一次变更都会返回一个新的状态,这样可以在变化时维护模型的整体性。响应式表单是围绕 Observable 的流构建的,表单的输入和值都是通过这些输入值组成的流来提供的,它可以同步访问。

Reactive forms also provide a straightforward path to testing because you are assured that your data is consistent and predictable when requested. Any consumers of the streams have access to manipulate that data safely.

响应式表单还提供了一种更直白的测试路径,因为在请求时你可以确信这些数据是一致的、可预料的。这个流的任何一个消费者都可以安全地操纵这些数据。

Reactive forms differ from template-driven forms in distinct ways. Reactive forms provide more predictability with synchronous access to the data model, immutability with observable operators, and change tracking through observable streams. If you prefer direct access to modify data in your template, template-driven forms are less explicit because they rely on directives embedded in the template, along with mutable data to track changes asynchronously. See the Forms Overview for detailed comparisons between the two paradigms.

响应式表单与模板驱动的表单有着显著的不同点。响应式表单通过对数据模型的同步访问提供了更多的可预测性,使用 Observable 的操作符提供了不可变性,并且通过 Observable 流提供了变化追踪功能。 如果你更喜欢在模板中直接访问数据,那么模板驱动的表单会显得更明确,因为它们依赖嵌入到模板中的指令,并借助可变数据来异步跟踪变化。参见表单概览来了解这两种范式之间的详细比较。

Getting started

快速起步

This section describes how to add a single form control. In the example, the user enters their name into an input field, captures that input value, and displays the current value of the form control element.

本节描述了如何添加单个表单控件。这里的例子允许用户在输入框中输入自己的名字,捕获输入的值,并把表单控件元素的当前值显示出来。

Step 1: Registering the reactive forms module

步骤 1 - 注册 ReactiveFormsModule

To use reactive forms, import ReactiveFormsModule from the @angular/forms package and add it to your NgModule's imports array.

要使用响应式表单,就要从 @angular/forms 包中导入 ReactiveFormsModule 并把它添加到你的 NgModule 的 imports 数组中。

import { ReactiveFormsModule } from '@angular/forms'; @NgModule({ imports: [ // other imports ... ReactiveFormsModule ], }) export class AppModule { }

Step 2: Generating and importing a new form control

步骤 2 - 生成并导入一个新的表单控件

Generate a component for the control.

为该控件生成一个组件。

ng generate component NameEditor

The FormControl class is the basic building block when using reactive forms. To register a single form control, import the FormControl class into your component and create a new instance of the form control to save as a class property.

当使用响应式表单时,FormControl 类是最基本的构造块。要注册单个的表单控件,请在组件中导入 FormControl 类,并创建一个 FormControl 的新实例,把它保存在类的某个属性中。

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { FormControl } from '@angular/forms'; @Component({ selector: 'app-name-editor', templateUrl: './name-editor.component.html', styleUrls: ['./name-editor.component.css'] }) export class NameEditorComponent { name = new FormControl(''); }

Use the constructor of FormControl to set its initial value, which in this case is an empty string. By creating these controls in your component class, you get immediate access to listen for, update, and validate the state of the form input.

可以用 FormControl 的构造函数设置初始值,这个例子中它是空字符串。通过在你的组件类中创建这些控件,你可以直接对表单控件的状态进行监听、修改和校验。

Step 3: Registering the control in the template

步骤 3 - 在模板中注册该控件

After you create the control in the component class, you must associate it with a form control element in the template. Update the template with the form control using the formControl binding provided by FormControlDirective included in ReactiveFormsModule.

在组件类中创建了控件之后,你还要把它和模板中的一个表单控件关联起来。修改模板,为表单控件添加 formControl 绑定,formControl 是由 ReactiveFormsModule 中的 FormControlDirective 提供的。

<label> Name: <input type="text" [formControl]="name"> </label>

Note: For a more detailed list of classes and directives provided by ReactiveFormsModule, see the Reactive forms API section.

注意:要了解 ReactiveFormsModule 提供的更多类和指令,请参见 响应式表单 API 一节。

Using the template binding syntax, the form control is now registered to the name input element in the template. The form control and DOM element communicate with each other: the view reflects changes in the model, and the model reflects changes in the view.

使用这种模板绑定语法,把该表单控件注册给了模板中名为 name 的输入元素。这样,表单控件和 DOM 元素就可以互相通讯了:视图会反映模型的变化,模型也会反映视图中的变化。

Displaying the component

显示组件

The form control assigned to name is displayed when the component is added to a template.

把该组件添加到模板时,将显示指派给 name 的表单控件。

<app-name-editor></app-name-editor>
Name Editor

Managing control values

管理控件的值

Reactive forms give you access to the form control state and value at a point in time. You can manipulate the current state and value through the component class or the component template. The following examples display the value of the form control instance and change it.

响应式表单让你可以访问表单控件此刻的状态和值。你可以通过组件类或组件模板来操纵其当前状态和值。下面的例子会显示及修改 FormConrol 实例的值。

Displaying a form control value

显示表单控件的值

You can display the value in these ways:

你可以用两种方式显示它的值:

  • Through the valueChanges observable where you can listen for changes in the form's value in the template using AsyncPipe or in the component class using the subscribe() method.

    通过可观察对象 valueChanges,你可以在模板中使用 AsyncPipe 或在组件类中使用 subscribe() 方法来监听表单值的变化。

  • With the value property. which gives you a snapshot of the current value.

    使用 value 属性。它能让你获得当前值的一份快照。

The following example shows you how to display the current value using interpolation in the template.

下面的例子展示了如何在模板中使用插值表达式显示当前值。

<p> Value: {{ name.value }} </p>

The displayed value changes as you update the form control element.

一旦你修改了表单控件所关联的元素,这里显示的值也跟着变化了。

Reactive forms provide access to information about a given control through properties and methods provided with each instance. These properties and methods of the underlying AbstractControl class are used to control form state and determine when to display messages when handling validation. For more information, see Simple form validation later in this guide.

响应式表单还能通过每个实例的属性和方法提供关于特定控件的更多信息。AbstractControl 的这些属性和方法用于控制表单状态,并在处理表单校验时决定何时显示信息。 欲知详情,参见稍后的简单表单验证一节。

Read about other FormControl properties and methods in the Reactive forms API section.

要了解 FormControl 的其它属性和方法,参见响应式表单 API一节。

Replacing a form control value

替换表单控件的值

Reactive forms have methods to change a control's value programmatically, which gives you the flexibility to update the value without user interaction. A form control instance provides a setValue() method that updates the value of the form control and validates the structure of the value provided against the control's structure. For example, when retrieving form data from a backend API or service, use the setValue() method to update the control to its new value, replacing the old value entirely.

响应式表单还有一些方法可以用编程的方式修改控件的值,它让你可以灵活的修改控件的值而不需要借助用户交互。FormControl 提供了一个 setValue() 方法,它会修改这个表单控件的值,并且验证与控件结构相对应的值的结构。比如,当从后端 API 或服务接收到了表单数据时,可以通过 setValue() 方法来把原来的值替换为新的值。

The following example adds a method to the component class to update the value of the control to Nancy using the setValue() method.

下列的例子往组件类中添加了一个方法,它使用 setValue() 方法来修改 Nancy 控件的值。

updateName() { this.name.setValue('Nancy'); }

Update the template with a button to simulate a name update. When you click the Update Name button, the value entered in the form control element is reflected as its current value.

修改模板,添加一个按钮,用于模拟改名操作。在点 Update Name 按钮之前表单控件元素中输入的任何值都会回显为它的当前值。

<p> <button (click)="updateName()">Update Name</button> </p>

The form model is the source of truth for the control, so when you click the button, the value of the input is changed within the component class, overriding its current value.

由于表单模型中才是该控件真正的源头,因此当你单击该按钮时,组件中该输入框的值也变化了,覆盖掉它的当前值。

Name Editor Update

Note: In this example, you're using a single control. When using the setValue() method with a form group or form array instance, the value needs to match the structure of the group or array.

注意:在这个例子中,你只使用单个控件,但是当调用 FormGroupFormArraysetValue() 方法时,传入的值就必须匹配控件组或控件数组的结构才行。

Grouping form controls

把表单控件分组

Just as a form control instance gives you control over a single input field, a form group instance tracks the form state of a group of form control instances (for example, a form). Each control in a form group instance is tracked by name when creating the form group. The following example shows how to manage multiple form control instances in a single group.

就像 FormControl 的实例能让你控制单个输入框所对应的控件一样,FormGroup 的实例也能跟踪一组 FormControl 实例(比如一个表单)的表单状态。当创建 FormGroup 时,其中的每个控件都会根据其名字进行跟踪。下列例子展示了如何管理单个控件组中的多个 FormControl 实例。

Generate a ProfileEditor component and import the FormGroup and FormControl classes from the @angular/forms package.

生成一个 ProfileEditor 组件并从 @angular/forms 包中导入 FormGroupFormControl 类。

ng generate component ProfileEditorimport { FormGroup, FormControl } from '@angular/forms';

Step 1: Creating a FormGroup instance

步骤 1 - 创建 FormGroup 实例

Create a property in the component class named profileForm and set the property to a new form group instance. To initialize the form group, provide the constructor with an object of named keys mapped to their control.

在组件类中创建一个名叫 profileForm 的属性,并设置为 FormGroup 的一个新实例。要初始化这个 FormGroup,请为构造函数提供一个由控件组成的对象,对象中的每个名字都要和表单控件的名字一一对应。

For the profile form, add two form control instances with the names firstName and lastName.

对此个人档案表单,要添加两个 FormControl 实例,名字分别为 firstNamelastName

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { FormGroup, FormControl } from '@angular/forms'; @Component({ selector: 'app-profile-editor', templateUrl: './profile-editor.component.html', styleUrls: ['./profile-editor.component.css'] }) export class ProfileEditorComponent { profileForm = new FormGroup({ firstName: new FormControl(''), lastName: new FormControl(''), }); }

The individual form controls are now collected within a group. A FormGroup instance provides its model value as an object reduced from the values of each control in the group. A form group instance has the same properties (such as value and untouched) and methods (such as setValue()) as a form control instance.

现在,这些独立的表单控件被收集到了一个控件组中。这个 FormGroup 用对象的形式提供了它的模型值,这个值来自组中每个控件的值。 FormGroup 实例拥有和 FormControl 实例相同的属性(比如 valueuntouched)和方法(比如 setValue())。

Step 2: Associating the FormGroup model and view

步骤 2 - 关联 FormGroup 的模型和视图

A form group tracks the status and changes for each of its controls, so if one of the controls changes, the parent control also emits a new status or value change. The model for the group is maintained from its members. After you define the model, you must update the template to reflect the model in the view.

这个表单组还能跟踪其中每个控件的状态及其变化,所以如果其中的某个控件的状态或值变化了,父控件也会发出一次新的状态变更或值变更事件。该控件组的模型来自它的所有成员。在定义了这个模型之后,你必须更新模板,来把该模型反映到视图中。

<form [formGroup]="profileForm"> <label> First Name: <input type="text" formControlName="firstName"> </label> <label> Last Name: <input type="text" formControlName="lastName"> </label> </form>

Note that just as a form group contains a group of controls, the profile form FormGroup is bound to the form element with the FormGroup directive, creating a communication layer between the model and the form containing the inputs. The formControlName input provided by the FormControlName directive binds each individual input to the form control defined in FormGroup. The form controls communicate with their respective elements. They also communicate changes to the form group instance, which provides the source of truth for the model value.

注意,就像 FormGroup 所包含的那控件一样,profileForm 这个 FormGroup 也通过 FormGroup 指令绑定到了 form 元素,在该模型和表单中的输入框之间创建了一个通讯层。 由 FormControlName 指令提供的 formControlName 属性把每个输入框和 FormGroup 中定义的表单控件绑定起来。这些表单控件会和相应的元素通讯,它们还把更改传递给 FormGroup,这个 FormGroup 是模型值的真正源头。

Saving form data

保存表单数据

The ProfileEditor component accepts input from the user, but in a real scenario you want to capture the form value and make available for further processing outside the component. The FormGroup directive listens for the submit event emitted by the form element and emits an ngSubmit event that you can bind to a callback function.

ProfileEditor 组件从用户那里获得输入,但在真实的场景中,你可能想要先捕获表单的值,等将来在组件外部进行处理。 FormGroup 指令会监听 form 元素发出的 submit 事件,并发出一个 ngSubmit 事件,让你可以绑定一个回调函数。

Add an ngSubmit event listener to the form tag with the onSubmit() callback method.

onSubmit() 回调方法添加为 form 标签上的 ngSubmit 事件监听器。

<form [formGroup]="profileForm" (ngSubmit)="onSubmit()">

The onSubmit() method in the ProfileEditor component captures the current value of profileForm. Use EventEmitter to keep the form encapsulated and to provide the form value outside the component. The following example uses console.warn to log a message to the browser console.

ProfileEditor 组件上的 onSubmit() 方法会捕获 profileForm 的当前值。要保持该表单的封装性,就要使用 EventEmitter 向组件外部提供该表单的值。下面的例子会使用 console.warn 把这个值记录到浏览器的控制台中。

onSubmit() { // TODO: Use EventEmitter with form value console.warn(this.profileForm.value); }

The submit event is emitted by the form tag using the native DOM event. You trigger the event by clicking a button with submit type. This allows the user to press the Enter key to submit the completed form.

form 标签所发出的 submit 事件是原生 DOM 事件,通过点击类型为 submit 的按钮可以触发本事件。这还让用户可以用回车键来提交填完的表单。

Use a button element to add a button to the bottom of the form to trigger the form submission.

往表单的底部添加一个 button,用于触发表单提交。

<button type="submit" [disabled]="!profileForm.valid">Submit</button>

Note: The button in the snippet above also has a disabled binding attached to it to disable the button when profileForm is invalid. You aren't performing any validation yet, so the button is always enabled. Simple form validation is covered in the Simple form validation section.

注意:上面这个代码片段中的按钮还附加了一个 disabled 绑定,用于在 profileForm 无效时禁用该按钮。目前你还没有执行任何表单验证逻辑,因此该按钮始终是可用的。稍后的表单验证一节会讲解简单的表单验证。

Displaying the component

显示组件

To display the ProfileEditor component that contains the form, add it to a component template.

要显示包含此表单的 ProfileEditor 组件,请把它添加到组件模板中。

<app-profile-editor></app-profile-editor>

ProfileEditor allows you to manage the form control instances for the firstName and lastName controls within the form group instance.

ProfileEditor 让你能管理 FormGroup 中的 firstNamelastNameFormControl 实例。

Profile Editor

Creating nested form groups

嵌套的表单组

When building complex forms, managing the different areas of information is easier in smaller sections, and some groups of information naturally fall into the same group. Using a nested form group instance allows you to break large forms groups into smaller, more manageable ones.

如果要构建复杂的表单,如果能在更小的分区中管理不同类别的信息就会更容易一些,而有些信息分组可能会自然的汇入另一个更大的组中。使用嵌套的 FormGroup 可以让你把大型表单组织成一些稍小的、易管理的分组。

Step 1: Creating a nested group

步骤 1 - 创建嵌套的分组

An address is a good example of information that can be grouped together. Form groups can accept both form control and form group instances as children. This makes composing complex form models easier to maintain and logically group together. To create a nested group in profileForm, add a nested address element to the form group instance.

“地址”就是可以把信息进行分组的绝佳范例。FormGroup 可以同时接纳 FormControlFormGroup 作为子控件。这使得那些比较复杂的表单模型可以更易于维护、更有逻辑性。要想在 profileForm 中创建一个嵌套的分组,请添加一个内嵌的名叫 address 的元素指向这个 FormGroup 实例。

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { FormGroup, FormControl } from '@angular/forms'; @Component({ selector: 'app-profile-editor', templateUrl: './profile-editor.component.html', styleUrls: ['./profile-editor.component.css'] }) export class ProfileEditorComponent { profileForm = new FormGroup({ firstName: new FormControl(''), lastName: new FormControl(''), address: new FormGroup({ street: new FormControl(''), city: new FormControl(''), state: new FormControl(''), zip: new FormControl('') }) }); }

In this example, address group combines the current firstName and lastName controls with the new street, city, state, and zip controls. Even though the address element in the form group is a child of the overall profileForm element in the form group, the same rules apply with value and status changes. Changes in status and value from the nested form group propagate to the parent form group, maintaining consistency with the overall model.

在这个例子中,address group 把现有的 firstNamelastName 控件和新的 streetcitystatezip 控件组合在一起。虽然 address 这个 FormGroupprofileForm 这个整体 FormGroup 的一个子控件,但是仍然适用同样的值和状态的变更规则。来自内嵌控件组的状态和值的变更将会冒泡到它的父控件组,以维护整体模型的一致性。

Step 2: Grouping the nested form in the template

步骤 2 - 在模板中分组内嵌的表单

After you update the model in the component class, update the template to connect the form group instance and its input elements.

在修改了组件类中的模型之后,还要修改模板,来把这个 FormGroup 实例对接到它的输入元素。

Add the address form group containing the firstName and lastName fields to the ProfileEditor template.

把包含 firstNamelastName 字段的 address 表单组添加到 ProfileEditor 模板中。

<div formGroupName="address"> <h3>Address</h3> <label> Street: <input type="text" formControlName="street"> </label> <label> City: <input type="text" formControlName="city"> </label> <label> State: <input type="text" formControlName="state"> </label> <label> Zip Code: <input type="text" formControlName="zip"> </label> </div>

The ProfileEditor form is displayed as one group, but the model is broken down further to represent the logical grouping areas.

ProfileEditor 表单显示为一个组,但是将来这个模型会被进一步细分,以表示逻辑分组区域。

Profile Editor Update

Note: Display the value for the form group instance in the component template using the value property and JsonPipe.

注意:这里使用了 value 属性和 JsonPipe 管道在组件模板中显示了这个 FormGroup 的值。

Partial model updates

部分模型更新

When updating the value for a form group instance that contains multiple controls, you may only want to update parts of the model. This section covers how to update specific parts of a form control data model.

当修改包含多个 FormGroup 实例的值时,你可能只希望更新模型中的一部分,而不是完全替换掉。这一节会讲解该如何更新 AbstractControl 模型中的一部分。

Patching the model value

修补(Patching)模型值

There are two ways to update the model value:

有两种更新模型值的方式:

  • Use the setValue() method to set a new value for an individual control. The setValue() method strictly adheres to the structure of the form group and replaces the entire value for the control.

    使用 setValue() 方法来为单个控件设置新值。 setValue() 方法会严格遵循表单组的结构,并整体性替换控件的值。

  • Use the patchValue() method to replace any properties defined in the object that have changed in the form model.

    使用 patchValue() 方法可以用对象中所定义的任何属性为表单模型进行替换。

The strict checks of the setValue() method help catch nesting errors in complex forms, while patchValue() fails silently on those errors.

setValue() 方法的严格检查可以帮助你捕获复杂表单嵌套中的错误,而 patchValue() 在遇到那些错误时可能会默默的失败。

In ProfileEditorComponent, use the updateProfile method with the example below to update the first name and street address for the user.

ProfileEditorComponent 中,使用 updateProfile 方法传入下列数据可以更新用户的名字与街道住址。

updateProfile() { this.profileForm.patchValue({ firstName: 'Nancy', address: { street: '123 Drew Street' } }); }

Simulate an update by adding a button to the template to update the user profile on demand.

通过往模板中添加一个按钮来模拟一次更新操作,以修改用户档案。

<p> <button (click)="updateProfile()">Update Profile</button> </p>

When a user clicks the button, the profileForm model is updated with new values for firstName and street. Notice that street is provided in an object inside the address property. This is necessary because the patchValue() method applies the update against the model structure. PatchValue() only updates properties that the form model defines.

当点击按钮时,profileForm 模型中只有 firstNamestreet 被修改了。注意,street 是在 address 属性的对象中被修改的。这种结构是必须的,因为 patchValue() 方法要针对模型的结构进行更新。patchValue() 只会更新表单模型中所定义的那些属性。

Generating form controls with FormBuilder

使用 FormBuilder 来生成表单控件

Creating form control instances manually can become repetitive when dealing with multiple forms. The FormBuilder service provides convenient methods for generating controls.

当需要与多个表单打交道时,手动创建多个表单控件实例会非常繁琐。FormBuilder 服务提供了一些便捷方法来生成表单控件。FormBuilder 在幕后也使用同样的方式来创建和返回这些实例,只是用起来更简单。

The following section refactors the ProfileEditor component to use the form builder service to create form control and form group instances.

下面的小节中会重构 ProfileEditor 组件,用 FormBuilder 来代替手工创建这些 FormControlFormGroup 实例。

Step 1: Importing the FormBuilder class

步骤 1 - 导入 FormBuilder

Import the FormBuilder class from the @angular/forms package.

@angular/forms 包中导入 FormBuilder 类。

import { FormBuilder } from '@angular/forms';

Step 2: Injecting the FormBuilder service

步骤 2 - 注入 FormBuilder 服务

The FormBuilder service is an injectable provider that is provided with the reactive forms module. Inject this dependency by adding it to the component constructor.

FormBuilder 是一个可注入的服务提供商,它是由 ReactiveFormModule 提供的。只要把它添加到组件的构造函数中就可以注入这个依赖。

constructor(private fb: FormBuilder) { }

Step 3: Generating form controls

步骤 3 - 生成表单控件

The FormBuilder service has three methods: control(), group(), and array(). These are factory methods for generating instances in your component classes including form controls, form groups, and form arrays.

FormBuilder 服务有三个方法:control()group()array()。这些方法都是工厂方法,用于在组件类中分别生成 FormControlFormGroupFormArray

Use the group method to create the profileForm controls.

group 方法来创建 profileForm 控件。

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import { FormBuilder } from '@angular/forms'; @Component({ selector: 'app-profile-editor', templateUrl: './profile-editor.component.html', styleUrls: ['./profile-editor.component.css'] }) export class ProfileEditorComponent { profileForm = this.fb.group({ firstName: [''], lastName: [''], address: this.fb.group({ street: [''], city: [''], state: [''], zip: [''] }), }); constructor(private fb: FormBuilder) { } }

In the example above, you use the group() method with the same object to define the properties in the model. The value for each control name is an array containing the initial value as the first item in the array.

在上面的例子中,你可以使用 group() 方法,用和前面一样的名字来定义这些属性。这里,每个控件名对应的值都是一个数组,这个数组中的第一项是其初始值。

Note: You can define the control with just the initial value, but if your controls need sync or async validation, add sync and async validators as the second and third items in the array.

注意:你可以只使用初始值来定义控件,但是如果你的控件还需要同步或异步验证器,那就在这个数组中的第二项和第三项提供同步和异步验证器。

Compare using the form builder to creating the instances manually.

比较一下用表单构建器和手动创建实例这两种方式。

profileForm = new FormGroup({ firstName: new FormControl(''), lastName: new FormControl(''), address: new FormGroup({ street: new FormControl(''), city: new FormControl(''), state: new FormControl(''), zip: new FormControl('') }) });profileForm = this.fb.group({ firstName: [''], lastName: [''], address: this.fb.group({ street: [''], city: [''], state: [''], zip: [''] }), });

Simple form validation

简单表单验证

Form validation is used to validate user input to ensure it's complete and correct. This section covers adding a single validator to a form control and displaying the overall form status. Form validation is covered more extensively in the Form Validation guide.

表单验证用于验证用户的输入,以确保其完整和正确。本节讲解了如何把单个验证器添加到表单控件中,以及如何显示表单的整体状态。表单验证的更多知识在表单验证一章中有详细的讲解。

Step 1: Importing a validator function

步骤 1 - 导入验证器函数

Reactive forms include a set of validator functions for common use cases. These functions receive a control to validate against and return an error object or a null value based on the validation check.

响应式表单包含了一组开箱即用的常用验证器函数。这些函数接收一个控件,用以验证并根据验证结果返回一个错误对象或空值。

Import the Validators class from the @angular/forms package.

@angular/forms 包中导入 Validators 类。

import { Validators } from '@angular/forms';

Step 2: Making a field required

步骤 2 - 把字段设为必填(required)

The most common validation is making a field required. This section describes how to add a required validation to the firstName control.

最常见的校验项是把一个字段设为必填项。本节描述如何为 firstName 控件添加“必填项”验证器。

In the ProfileEditor component, add the Validators.required static method as the second item in the array for the firstName control.

ProfileEditor 组件中,把静态方法 Validators.required 设置为 firstName 控件值数组中的第二项。

profileForm = this.fb.group({ firstName: ['', Validators.required], lastName: [''], address: this.fb.group({ street: [''], city: [''], state: [''], zip: [''] }), });

HTML5 has a set of built-in attributes that you can use for native validation, including required, minlength, and maxlength. You can take advantage of these optional attributes on your form input elements. Add the required attribute to the firstName input element.

HTML5 有一组内置的属性,用来进行原生验证,包括 requiredminlengthmaxlength 等。虽然是可选的,不过你也可以在表单的输入元素上把它们添加为附加属性来使用它们。这里我们把 required 属性添加到 firstName 输入元素上。

<input type="text" formControlName="firstName" required>

Caution: Use these HTML5 validation attributes in combination with the built-in validators provided by Angular's reactive forms. Using these in combination prevents errors when the expression is changed after the template has been checked.

注意:这些 HTML5 验证器属性可以和 Angular 响应式表单提供的内置验证器组合使用。组合使用这两种验证器实践,可以防止在模板检查完之后表达式再次被修改导致的错误。

Displaying form status

显示表单状态

When you add a required field to the form control, its initial status is invalid. This invalid status propagates to the parent form group element, making its status invalid. Access the current status of the form group instance through its status property.

当你往表单控件上添加了一个必填字段时,它的初始值是无效的(invalid)。这种无效状态会传播到其父 FormGroup 元素中,也让这个 FormGroup 的状态变为无效的。你可以通过该 FormGroup 实例的 status 属性来访问其当前状态。

Display the current status of profileForm using interpolation.

使用插值表达式显示 profileForm 的当前状态。

<p> Form Status: {{ profileForm.status }} </p>
Profile Editor Validation

The Submit button is disabled because profileForm is invalid due to the required firstName form control. After you fill out the firstName input, the form becomes valid and the Submit button is enabled.

提交按钮被禁用了,因为 firstName 控件的必填项规则导致了 profileForm 也是无效的。在你填写了 firstName 输入框之后,该表单就变成了有效的,并且提交按钮也启用了。

For more on form validation, visit the Form Validation guide.

要了解表单验证的更多知识,参见表单验证一章。

Dynamic controls using form arrays

使用表单数组管理动态控件

FormArray is an alternative to FormGroup for managing any number of unnamed controls. As with form group instances, you can dynamically insert and remove controls from form array instances, and the form array instance value and validation status is calculated from its child controls. However, you don't need to define a key for each control by name, so this is a great option if you don't know the number of child values in advance. The following example shows you how to manage an array of aliases in ProfileEditor.

FormArrayFormGroup 之外的另一个选择,用于管理任意数量的匿名控件。像 FormGroup 实例一样,你也可以往 FormArray 中动态插入和移除控件,并且 FormArray 实例的值和验证状态也是根据它的子控件计算得来的。 不过,你不需要为每个控件定义一个名字作为 key,因此,如果你事先不知道子控件的数量,这就是一个很好的选择。下面的例子展示了如何在 ProfileEditor 中管理一组绰号(aliases)。

Step 1: Importing the FormArray class

步骤 1 - 导入 FormArray

Import the FormArray class from @angular/forms to use for type information. The FormBuilder service is ready to create a FormArray instance.

@angular/form 中导入 FormArray,以使用它的类型信息。FormBuilder 服务用于创建 FormArray 实例。

import { FormArray } from '@angular/forms';

Step 2: Defining a FormArray control

步骤 2 - 定义 FormArray

You can initialize a form array with any number of controls, from zero to many, by defining them in an array. Add an aliases property to the form group instance for profileForm to define the form array.

你可以通过把一组(从零项到多项)控件定义在一个数组中来初始化一个 FormArray。为 profileForm 添加一个 aliases 属性,把它定义为 FormArray 类型。

Use the FormBuilder.array() method to define the array, and the FormBuilder.control() method to populate the array with an initial control.

使用 FormBuilder.array() 方法来定义该数组,并用 FormBuilder.control() 方法来往该数组中添加一个初始控件。

profileForm = this.fb.group({ firstName: ['', Validators.required], lastName: [''], address: this.fb.group({ street: [''], city: [''], state: [''], zip: [''] }), aliases: this.fb.array([ this.fb.control('') ]) });

The aliases control in the form group instance is now populated with a single control until more controls are added dynamically.

FormGroup 中的这个 aliases 控件现在管理着一个控件,将来还可以动态添加多个。

Step 3: Accessing the FormArray control

步骤 3 - 访问 FormArray 控件

A getter provides easy access to the aliases in the form array instance compared to repeating the profileForm.get() method to get each instance. The form array instance represents an undefined number of controls in an array. It's convenient to access a control through a getter, and this approach is easy to repeat for additional controls.

相对于重复使用 profileForm.get() 方法获取每个实例的方式,getter 可以让你轻松访问表单数组各个实例中的别名。 表单数组实例用一个数组来代表未定数量的控件。通过 getter 来访问控件很方便,这种方法还能很容易地重复处理更多控件。

Use the getter syntax to create an aliases class property to retrieve the alias's form array control from the parent form group.

使用 getter 语法创建类属性 aliases,以从父表单组中接收表示绰号的表单数组控件。

get aliases() { return this.profileForm.get('aliases') as FormArray; }

Note: Because the returned control is of the type AbstractControl, you need to provide an explicit type to access the method syntax for the form array instance.

注意:因为返回的控件的类型是 AbstractControl,所以你要为该方法提供一个显式的类型声明来访问 FormArray 特有的语法。

Define a method to dynamically insert an alias control into the alias's form array. The FormArray.push() method inserts the control as a new item in the array.

定义一个方法来把一个绰号控件动态插入到绰号 FormArray 中。用 FormArray.push() 方法把该控件添加为数组中的新条目。

addAlias() { this.aliases.push(this.fb.control('')); }

In the template, each control is displayed as a separate input field.

在这个模板中,这些控件会被迭代,把每个控件都显示为一个独立的输入框。

Step 4: Displaying the form array in the template

步骤 4 - 在模板中显示表单数组

To attach the aliases from your form model, you must add it to the template. Similar to the formGroupName input provided by FormGroupNameDirective, formArrayName binds communication from the form array instance to the template with FormArrayNameDirective.

要想为表单模型添加 aliases ,你必须把它加入到模板中供用户输入。和 FormGroupNameDirective 提供的 formGroupName 一样,FormArrayNameDirective 也使用 formArrayName 在这个 FormArray 实例和模板之间建立绑定。

Add the template HTML below after the <div> closing the formGroupName element.

formGroupName <div> 元素的结束标签下方,添加一段模板 HTML。

<div formArrayName="aliases"> <h3>Aliases</h3> <button (click)="addAlias()">Add Alias</button> <div *ngFor="let address of aliases.controls; let i=index"> <!-- The repeated alias template --> <label> Alias: <input type="text" [formControlName]="i"> </label> </div> </div>

The *ngFor directive iterates over each form control instance provided by the aliases form array instance. Because form array elements are unnamed, you assign the index to the i variable and pass it to each control to bind it to the formControlName input.

*ngFor 指令对 aliases FormArray 提供的每个 FormControl 进行迭代。因为 FormArray 中的元素是匿名的,所以你要把索引号赋值给 i 变量,并且把它传给每个控件的 formControlName 输入属性。

Profile Editor Aliases

Each time a new alias instance is added, the new form array instance is provided its control based on the index. This allows you to track each individual control when calculating the status and value of the root control.

每当新的 alias 加进来时,FormArray 的实例就会基于这个索引号提供它的控件。这将允许你在每次计算根控件的状态和值时跟踪每个控件。

Adding an alias

添加绰号

Initially, the form contains one Alias field. To add another field, click the Add Alias button. You can also validate the array of aliases reported by the form model displayed by Form Value at the bottom of the template.

最初,表单只包含一个绰号字段,点击 Add Alias 按钮,就出现了另一个字段。您还可以验证由模板底部的“Form Value”显示出来的表单模型所报告的这个绰号数组。

Note: Instead of a form control instance for each alias, you can compose another form group instance with additional fields. The process of defining a control for each item is the same.

注意:除了为每个绰号使用 FormControl 之外,你还可以改用 FormGroup 来组合上一些额外字段。对其中的每个条目定义控件的过程和前面没有区别。

Appendix

附录

Reactive forms API

响应式表单 API

Listed below are the base classes and services used to create and manage form controls.

下面列出了用于创建和管理表单控件的基础类和服务。

Classes

Class

Description

说明

AbstractControl

The abstract base class for the concrete form control classes FormControl, FormGroup, and FormArray. It provides their common behaviors and properties.

所有三种表单控件类(FormControlFormGroupFormArray)的抽象基类。它提供了一些公共的行为和属性。

FormControl

Manages the value and validity status of an individual form control. It corresponds to an HTML form control such as <input> or <select>.

管理单体表单控件的值和有效性状态。它对应于 HTML 的表单控件,比如 <input><select>

FormGroup

Manages the value and validity state of a group of AbstractControl instances. The group's properties include its child controls. The top-level form in your component is FormGroup.

管理一组 AbstractControl 实例的值和有效性状态。该组的属性中包括了它的子控件。组件中的顶级表单就是 FormGroup

FormArray

Manages the value and validity state of a numerically indexed array of AbstractControl instances.

管理一些 AbstractControl 实例数组的值和有效性状态。

FormBuilder

An injectable service that provides factory methods for creating control instances.

一个可注入的服务,提供一些用于提供创建控件实例的工厂方法。

Directives

指令

Directive

指令

Description

说明

FormControlDirective

Syncs a standalone FormControl instance to a form control element.

把一个独立的 FormControl 实例绑定到表单控件元素。

FormControlName

Syncs FormControl in an existing FormGroup instance to a form control element by name.

把一个现有 FormGroup 中的 FormControl 实例根据名字绑定到表单控件元素。

FormGroupDirective

Syncs an existing FormGroup instance to a DOM element.

把一个现有的 FormGroup 实例绑定到 DOM 元素。

FormGroupName

Syncs a nested FormGroup instance to a DOM element.

把一个内嵌的 FormGroup 实例绑定到一个 DOM 元素。

FormArrayName

Syncs a nested FormArray instance to a DOM element.

把一个内嵌的 FormArray 实例绑定到一个 DOM 元素。