填写这份《一分钟调查》,帮我们(开发组)做得更好!去填写Home

Angular 工作区配置

Angular Workspace Configuration

Angular 工作区根目录下的 angular.json 文件提供了全工作区级的配置和具体项目的默认配置,供 Angular CLI 中的构建工具和开发工具使用。 此配置中所提供的路径值都是相对于工作区根目录的。

A file named angular.json at the root level of an Angular workspace provides workspace-wide and project-specific configuration defaults for build and development tools provided by the Angular CLI. Path values given in the configuration are relative to the root workspace folder.

JSON 的总体结构

Overall JSON structure

angular.json 的顶级,一些属性用于配置工作区,其中的 projects 区则包含其余的针对每个项目的配置项。

At the top level of angular.json, a few properties configure the workspace, and a projects section contains the remaining per-project configuration options.

  • version:该配置文件的版本。

    version: The configuration-file version.

  • newProjectRoot:用来创建新工程的位置。绝对路径或相对于工作区目录的路径。

    newProjectRoot: Path where new projects are created. Absolute or relative to the workspace folder.

  • defaultProject:当命令中没有指定参数时,要使用的默认工程名。当你用 ng new 在新的工作区中创建新应用时,该应用就会一直作为此工作区的默认项目,除非你到这里修改它。

    defaultProject: Default project name to use in commands, where not provided as an argument. When you use ng new to create a new app in a new workspace, that app is the default project for the workspace until you change it here.

  • projects:对于工作区中的每个项目(库、应用、e2e 测试)都会包含一个子分区,子分区中是每个项目的配置项。

    projects : Contains a subsection for each project (library, app, e2e test app) in the workspace, with the per-project configuration options.

你通过 ng new app_name 命令创建的初始应用及其对应的端到端测试应用都会列在 projects 下:

The initial app that you create with ng new app_name is listed under "projects", along with its corresponding end-to-end test app:

projects app_name ... app_name-e2e ...
      
      projects
  app_name
    ...
  app_name-e2e
    ...
    

你使用 ng generate application 创建的每个应用都有相应的端到端测试项目,它有自己的配置节。当你使用 ng generate library 创建库项目时,库项目也会添加到 projects 节。

Each additional app that you create with ng generate application has a corresponding end-to-end test project, with its own configuration section. When you create a library project with ng generate library, the library project is also added to the projects section.

请注意,配置文件的 projects 节与工作区的文件结构并不完全对应。

Note that the projects section of the configuration file does not correspond exactly to the workspace file structure.

  • ng new 创建的这个初始应用和它的 e2e 应用一起位于工作区文件结构的顶层。

    The initial app created by ng new is at the top level of the workspace file structure, along with its e2e app.

  • 其它应用、e2e应用和库位于工作区的 projects 文件夹中。

    Additional apps, e2e apps, and libraries go into a projects folder in the workspace.

    欲知详情,参见工作区和项目文件结构

    For more information, see Workspace and project file structure.

项目配置选项

Project configuration options

每个项目的 projects:<project_name> 下都有以下顶级配置属性。

The following top-level configuration properties are available for each project, under projects:<project_name>.

"my-v7-app": { "root": "", "sourceRoot": "src", "projectType": "application", "prefix": "app", "schematics": {}, "architect": {} }
      
      "my-v7-app": {
  "root": "",
  "sourceRoot": "src",
  "projectType": "application",
  "prefix": "app",
  "schematics": {},
  "architect": {}
}
    

属性

PROPERTY

描述

DESCRIPTION

root

该项目的根文件夹,相对于工作区文件夹的路径。初始应用的值为空,因为它位于工作区的顶层。

The root folder for this project's files, relative to the workspace folder. Empty for the initial app, which resides at the top level of the workspace.

sourceRoot

该项目源文件的根文件夹。

The root folder for this project's source files.

projectType

"application" 或 "library" 之一。应用可以在浏览器中独立运行,而库则不行。应用及其 e2e 测试应用都属于 "application" 类型。

One of "application" or "library". An application can run independently in a browser, while a library cannot. Both an app and its e2e test app are of type "application".

prefix

Angular 所生成的选择器的前缀字符串。可以自定义它,以作为应用或功能区的标识。

A string that Angular prepends to generated selectors. Can be customized to identify an app or feature area.

schematics

一个包含 schematic 的对象,用于自定义该项目的 CLI 命令。

An object containing schematics that customize CLI commands for this project.

architect

一个包含默认配置的对象,用于定义此项目构建器的目标。

An object containing configuration defaults for Architect builder targets for this project.

项目工具的配置选项

Project tool configuration options

建筑师(Architect)是指 CLI 用来根据所提供的配置执行复杂任务(如编译和测试运行)的工具。 architect 部分包含一组建筑目标。很多目标都对应于运行它们的 CLI 命令。使用 ng run 命令可以运行一些额外的预定义目标,并可以定义自己的目标。

Architect is the tool that the CLI uses to perform complex tasks such as compilation and test running, according to provided configurations. The architect section contains a set of Architect targets. Many of the targets correspond to the CLI commands that run them. Some additional predefined targets can be run using the ng run command, and you can define your own targets.

每个目标对象都指定了该目标的 builder,它是建筑师所运行工具的 npm 包。此外,每个目标都有一个 options 部分,用于配置该目标的默认选项,configurations 部分可以为目标命名并指定备用配置。参见稍后的构建目标部分的例子。

Each target object specifies the builder for that target, which is the npm package for the tool that Architect runs. In addition, each target has an options section that configure default options for the target, and a configurations section that names and specifies alternative configurations for the target. See the example in Build target below.

"architect": { "build": { }, "serve": { }, "e2e" : { }, "test": { }, "lint": { }, "extract-i18n": { }, "server": { }, "app-shell": { } }
      
      "architect": {
  "build": { },
  "serve": { },
  "e2e" : { },
  "test": { },
  "lint": { },
  "extract-i18n": { },
  "server": { },
  "app-shell": { }
}
    
  • architect/build 节会为 ng build 命令的选项配置默认值。更多信息,参见稍后的构建目标部分。

    The architect/build section configures defaults for options of the ng build command. See Build target below for more information.

  • architect/serve 节会覆盖构建默认值,并为 ng serve 命令提供额外的服务器默认值。除了 ng build 命令的可用选项之外,还增加了与开发服务器有关的选项。

    The architect/serve section overrides build defaults and supplies additional serve defaults for the ng serve command. In addition to the options available for the ng build command, it adds options related to serving the app.

  • architect/e2e 节覆盖了构建选项默认值,以便用 ng e2e 命令构建端到端测试应用。

    The architect/e2e section overrides build-option defaults for building end-to-end testing apps using the ng e2e command.

  • architect/test 节会覆盖测试时的构建选项默认值,并为 ng test 命令提供额外的默认值以供运行测试。

    The architect/test section overrides build-option defaults for test builds and supplies additional test-running defaults for the ng test command.

  • architect/lint 节为 ng lint 命令配置了默认值,用于对项目源文件进行代码分析。 Angular 默认的 linting 工具为 TSLint

    The architect/lint section configures defaults for options of the ng lint command, which performs code analysis on project source files. The default linting tool for Angular is TSLint.

  • architect/extract-i18n 节为 ng xi18n 命令所用到的 ng-xi18n 工具选项配置了默认值,该命令用于从源代码中提取带标记的消息串,并输出翻译文件。

    The architect/extract-i18n section configures defaults for options of the ng-xi18n tool used by the ng xi18n command, which extracts marked message strings from source code and outputs translation files.

  • architect/server 节用于为使用 ng run <project>:server 命令创建带服务器端渲染的 Universal 应用配置默认值。

    The architect/server section configures defaults for creating a Universal app with server-side rendering, using the ng run <project>:server command.

  • architect/app-shell 部分使用 ng run <project>:app-shell 命令为渐进式 Web 应用(PWA)配置创建应用外壳的默认值。

    The architect/app-shell section configures defaults for creating an app shell for a progressive web app (PWA), using the ng run <project>:app-shell command.

一般来说,可以为 CLI 参考手册中列出的每个命令配置相应的默认值。注意,配置文件中的所有选项都必须使用 camelCase,而不是 dash-case。

In general, the options for which you can configure defaults correspond to the command options listed in the CLI reference page for each command. Note that all options in the configuration file must use camelCase, rather than dash-case.

构建目标

Build target

architect/build 节会为 ng build 命令的选项配置默认值。它具有下列顶级属性。

The architect/build section configures defaults for options of the ng build command. It has the following top-level properties.

属性

PROPERTY

说明

DESCRIPTION

builder

用于构建此目标的构建工具的 npm 包。默认为 @angular-devkit/build-angular:browser,它使用的是 webpack 打包器。

The npm package for the build tool used to create this target. The default is @angular-devkit/build-angular:browser, which uses the webpack package bundler.

options

本节包含构建选项的默认值,当没有指定命名的备用配置时使用。参见下面的默认构建选项

This section contains defaults for build options, used when no named alternative configuration is specified. See Default build options below.

configurations

本节定义并命名针对不同目标的备用配置。它为每个命名配置都包含一节,用于设置该目标环境的默认选项。参见下面的备用的构建配置

This section defines and names alternative configurations for different intended destinations. It contains a section for each named configuration, which sets the default options for that intended environment. See Alternate build configurations below.

备用的构建配置

Alternate build configurations

默认情况下,会定义一个 production 配置,ng build 命令会使用该配置下的 --prod 选项。这里的 production 配置会设置各种默认值来优化应用,例如打包文件、最小化多余空格、移除注释和死代码,以及重写代码以使用简短的名字(“minification”)。

By default, a production configuration is defined, and the ng build command has --prod option that builds using this configuration. The production configuration sets defaults that optimize the app in a number of ways, such bundling files, minimizing excess whitespace, removing comments and dead code, and rewriting code to use short, cryptic names ("minification").

你可以定义和命名适用于你的开发过程的其它备用配置(例如stage)。其它构建配置的一些例子是 AIO 自己使用的 stablearchivenext,以及构建本地化版本应用所需的各个与区域有关的配置置。欲知详情,参见国际化(i18n)

You can define and name additional alternate configurations (such as stage, for instance) appropriate to your development process. Some examples of different build configurations are stable, archive and next used by AIO itself, and the individual locale-specific configurations required for building localized versions of an app. For details, see Internationalization (i18n).

额外的构建和测试选项

Additional build and test options

ng buildng serveng test命令的可配置选项通常与 ng buildng serveng test命令的可用选项一一对应。有关这些选项及其取值范围的更多信息,参见“ CLI参考手册”

The configurable options for a default or targeted build generally correspond to the options available for the ng build, ng serve, and ng testcommands. For details of those options and their possible values, see the CLI Reference.

一些额外的选项(如下所列)只能通过配置文件来设置,可以直接编辑,也可以使用 ng config命令。

Some additional options (listed below) can only be set through the configuration file, either by direct editing or with the ng configcommand.

选项属性

OPTIONS PROPERTIES

说明

DESCRIPTION

fileReplacements

一个对象,包含一些文件及其编译时替代品。

An object containing files and their compile-time replacements.

stylePreprocessorOptions

一个对象,包含要传递给样式预处理器的选项"值-对"。

An object containing option-value pairs to pass to style preprocessors.

assets

一个对象,包含一些用于添加到项目的全局上下文中的静态文件路径。它的默认路径指向项目的图标文件及项目的 assets 文件夹。

An object containing paths to static assets to add to the global context of the project. The default paths point to the project's icon file and its assets folder.

styles

一个对象,包含一些要添加到项目全局上下文中的样式文件。 Angular CLI 支持 CSS 导入和所有主要的 CSS 预处理器: sass/scsslessstylus

An object containing style files to add to the global context of the project. Angular CLI supports CSS imports and all major CSS preprocessors: sass/scss, less, and stylus.

scripts

一个对象,包含一些 JavaScript 脚本文件,用于添加到项目的全局上下文中。这些脚本的加载方式和在 index.html<script> 标签中添加是完全一样的。

An object containing JavaScript script files to add to the global context of the project. The scripts are loaded exactly as if you had added them in a <script> tag inside index.html.

budgets

全部或部分应用的默认尺寸预算的类型和阈值。当构建的输出达到或超过阈值大小时,你可以将构建器配置为报告警告或错误。参见配置尺寸预算 。(不适用于 test 部分。)

Default size-budget type and threshholds for all or parts of your app. You can configure the builder to report a warning or an error when the output reaches or exceeds a threshold size. See Configure size budgets. (Not available in test section.)