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本指南基于入门教程的第一步:基本 Angular 应用入门

This guide builds on the first step of the Getting Started tutorial, Get started with a basic Angular app.

在此阶段,本在线商店应用会拥有基本的产品目录。

At this stage of development, the online store application has a basic product catalog.

在以下各节中,你将向应用添加以下功能:

In the following sections, you'll add the following features to the application:

  • 在地址栏中键入 URL 以导航到相应的产品页面。

    Type a URL in the address bar to navigate to a corresponding product page.

  • 单击页面上的链接以在单页应用中导航。

    Click links on the page to navigate within your single-page application.

  • 单击浏览器的后退和前进按钮以直观地在浏览器的历史记录中浏览。

    Click the browser's back and forward buttons to navigate the browser history intuitively.

关联 URL 路径与组件

Associate a URL path with a component

本应用已经用 Angular Router 导航到了 ProductListComponent。本节将介绍如何定义显示单个产品详情的路由。

The application already uses the Angular Router to navigate to the ProductListComponent. This section shows you how to define a route to show individual product details.

  1. 生成用于展示产品详情的新组件。在文件列表中,右键单击 app 文件夹,选择 Angular GeneratorComponent。将组件命名为 product-details

    Generate a new component for product details. In the file list, right-click the app folder, choose Angular Generator and Component. Name the component product-details.

  2. app.module.ts 中,添加产品详情的路由,其 pathproducts/:productId,其 componentProductDetailsComponent

    In app.module.ts, add a route for product details, with a path of products/:productId and ProductDetailsComponent for the component.

    src/app/app.module.ts
          
          @NgModule({
      imports: [
        BrowserModule,
        ReactiveFormsModule,
        RouterModule.forRoot([
          { path: '', component: ProductListComponent },
          { path: 'products/:productId', component: ProductDetailsComponent },
        ])
      ],
        
  3. 打开 product-list.component.html

    Open product-list.component.html.

  4. 修改产品名称上的链接,使其包括以 product.id 为参数的 routerLink

    Modify the product name anchor to include a routerLink with the product.id as a parameter.

    src/app/product-list/product-list.component.html
          
          <div *ngFor="let product of products">
    
      <h3>
        <a [title]="product.name + ' details'" [routerLink]="['/products', product.id]">
          {{ product.name }}
        </a>
      </h3>
    
    <!-- . . . -->
    
    </div>
        

    RouterLink 指令可帮助你自定义 a 元素。在这里,路由或 URL 中包含一个固定的区段 /products。最后一段则是变量,插入当前产品的 id。 例如,id 为 1 的产品的 URL 是 https://getting-started-myfork.stackblitz.io/products/1

    The RouterLink directive helps you customize the anchor element. In this case, the route, or URL, contains one fixed segment, /products. The final segment is variable, inserting the id property of the current product. For example, the URL for a product with an id of 1 would be similar to https://getting-started-myfork.stackblitz.io/products/1.

  5. 通过单击产品名称,验证路由器是否如预期般工作。应用中应该显示 ProductDetailsComponent 组件,其显示的内容为 “product-details works!”。

    Verify that the router works as intended by clicking the product name. The application should display the ProductDetailsComponent, which currently says "product-details works!"

    请注意,预览窗口中的 URL 发生了变化。最后一个部分是 products/#,其中 # 表示你单击的路由的编号。

    Notice that the URL in the preview window changes. The final segment is products/# where # is the number of the route you clicked.

查看产品详情

View product details

ProductDetailsComponent 会处理每个产品的显示工作。Angular 路由器会根据浏览器的 URL 和你定义的路径来显示组件。

The ProductDetailsComponent handles the display of each product. The Angular Router displays components based on the browser's URL and your defined routes.

在本节中,你将使用 Angular 路由器来组合 products 数据和路由信息以显示每个产品的特定详情。

In this section, you'll use the Angular Router to combine the products data and route information to display the specific details for each product.

  1. product-details.component.ts 中,从 @angular/router 导入 ActivatedRoute,并从 ../products 导入 products 数组。

    In product-details.component.ts, import ActivatedRoute from @angular/router, and the products array from ../products.

    src/app/product-details/product-details.component.ts
          
          import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
    import { ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router';
    
    import { Product, products } from '../products';
        
  2. 定义 product 属性。

    Define the product property.

    src/app/product-details/product-details.component.ts
          
          export class ProductDetailsComponent implements OnInit {
      product: Product|undefined;
      /* ... */
    }
        
  3. 通过把 private route: ActivatedRoute 添加为构造函数括号内的参数,来把 ActivatedRoute 注入到 constructor() 中。

    Inject ActivatedRoute into the constructor() by adding private route: ActivatedRoute as an argument within the constructor's parentheses.

    src/app/product-details/product-details.component.ts
          
          export class ProductDetailsComponent implements OnInit {
      product: Product|undefined;
    
      constructor(
        private route: ActivatedRoute,
      ) { }
    
    }
        

    Angular 路由器加载的每个组件都有自己专属的 ActivatedRouteActivatedRoute 中包含有关路由和路由参数的信息。

    ActivatedRoute is specific to each component that the Angular Router loads. ActivatedRoute contains information about the route and the route's parameters.

    通过注入 ActivatedRoute,你可以配置此组件以使用服务。 管理数据那一步将更详细地介绍服务。

    By injecting ActivatedRoute, you are configuring the component to use a service. The Managing Data step covers services in more detail.

  4. ngOnInit() 方法中,从路由参数中提取 productId,并在 products 数组中找到相应的产品。

    In the ngOnInit() method, extract the productId from the route parameters and find the corresponding product in the products array.

    src/app/product-details/product-details.component.ts
          
          ngOnInit() {
      // First get the product id from the current route.
      const routeParams = this.route.snapshot.paramMap;
      const productIdFromRoute = Number(routeParams.get('productId'));
    
      // Find the product that correspond with the id provided in route.
      this.product = products.find(product => product.id === productIdFromRoute);
    }
        

    路由参数与你在此路由中定义的路径变量相对应。要访问路由参数,我们使用 route.snapshot ,它是一个 ActivatedRouteSnapshot,其中包含有关该特定时刻的活动路由信息。与此路由匹配的 URL 提供了 productId。Angular 会使用 productId 来显示每个唯一产品的详情。

    The route parameters correspond to the path variables you define in the route. To access the route parameters, we use route.snapshot, which is the ActivatedRouteSnapshot that contains information about the active route at that particular moment in time. The URL that matches the route provides the productId . Angular uses the productId to display the details for each unique product.

  5. 更新 ProductDetailsComponent 的模板以显示带有 *ngIf 的产品详情。如果产品存在,则此 <div> 会显示名称、价格和说明。

    Update the ProductDetailsComponent template to display product details with an *ngIf. If a product exists, the <div> renders with a name, price, and description.

    src/app/product-details/product-details.component.html
          
          <h2>Product Details</h2>
    
    <div *ngIf="product">
      <h3>{{ product.name }}</h3>
      <h4>{{ product.price | currency }}</h4>
      <p>{{ product.description }}</p>
    
    </div>
        

    <h4>{{ product.price | currency }}</h4> 这一行,使用 currency 管道将 product.price 从数字转换为货币字符串。管道是一种可以在 HTML 模板中转换数据的方式。有关 Angular 管道的更多信息,请参见管道

    The line, <h4>{{ product.price | currency }}</h4>, uses the currency pipe to transform product.price from a number to a currency string. A pipe is a way you can transform data in your HTML template. For more information about Angular pipes, see Pipes.

当用户单击产品列表中的名称时,路由器会将其导航到产品的不同 URL,显示此 ProductDetailsComponent,并展示产品详情。

When users click on a name in the product list, the router navigates them to the distinct URL for the product, shows the ProductDetailsComponent, and displays the product details.

有关 Angular 路由器的更多信息,请参见路由与导航

For more information about the Angular Router, see Routing & Navigation.

下一步是什么

What's next

你已经配置好了应用,以便查看产品详情,每个产品详情都有一个不同的 URL。

You have configured your application so you can view product details, each with a distinct URL.

继续探索 Angular:

To continue exploring Angular:

  • 继续管理数据以添加购物车功能、管理购物车数据并检索外部数据以获取运费。

    Continue to Managing Data to add a shopping cart feature, manage cart data, and retrieve external data for shipping prices.

  • 跳至部署以将你的应用部署到 Firebase 或转为本地开发。

    Skip ahead to Deployment to deploy your application to Firebase or move to local development.